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History of Cultural Anthropology . Western Science. 1500 Europe in isolation Supernatural explanations explained everything Exploration of world caused questions Museums Interest in biology and earth sciences. 19 th Century Figures. Charles Darwin Natural Selection Charles Lyell

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History of Cultural Anthropology


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    1. History of Cultural Anthropology

    2. Western Science • 1500 Europe in isolation • Supernatural explanations explained everything • Exploration of world caused questions • Museums • Interest in biology and earth sciences

    3. 19th Century Figures • Charles Darwin • Natural Selection • Charles Lyell • Uniformitarianism

    4. Lewis Henry Morgan 1818-1881 • A 19th century scholar who developed the evolutionary approach • Pioneered the comparative study of culture

    5. Sir Edward B. Tylor 1832-1917 • Provided a classic definition of culture that is still valid • Key theorist in the anthropology of religion

    6. Unilinear Evolution

    7. Herbert Spencer1820-1903 • Survival of the fittest • Social Darwinism

    8. Franz Boas 1848-1952 • Set high standard for excellence in fieldwork • Developed the idea of cultural relativity • Discredited then-dominant theories of racial superiority

    9. A.R. Radcliff-Brown 1881-1955 Developed the structural-functional approach to look at how each aspect of society contributes to the maintenance of the whole

    10. Bronislaw Malinowski1884-1942 • Outlined the biological and psychological needs of people fulfilled by culture • Pioneered the participant observation method

    11. Ruth Fulton Benedict 1887-1948 • Wrote “Patterns of Culture” • Viewed cultures as coherent patterns

    12. Margaret Mead 1901-1978 • A “founding mother” of anthropology • Pioneered the cross-cultural study of personality

    13. Ralph Linton, 1893–1953 • Insights into process of acculturation • Influenced development of the culture-and-personality school of anthropology • Introduced terms "status" and "role" • The Tree of Culture (1955)

    14. Claude Levi-Strauss 1908- Established structuralism, which considers the underlying mental structures that culture represents

    15. Julian H. Steward 1902-1972 Founder of the cultural ecology approach that focuses on the interactions of cultures with their environments

    16. Leslie White 1900-1975 Developed the cultural materialist approach with focus on how the techno-economic aspects of culture determine the social and ideological spheres

    17. George Murdoch 1897-1985 • Empiricist • Came up 70 or so “cultural universals”