Additional Information: Pointless or Necessary? Grace Desjardins The Academy of Notre Dame de Namur Grade 9
Problem • Will added information lead to a more accurate accusation of a criminal?
Research • Photo line-ups must contain 6 or more images • Same size, color, etc. • People must look similar, but only one can be involved in the crime • Looking at pictures from a photo line-up one by one can allow people to make more accurate judgments. • Must decide whether or not the photo is of the criminal each time • Don’t know what the next picture looks like • What is said before showing the line-up can affect the choices • Confidence level changes • Details can’t always be remembered exactly, so new images are formed.
Hypothesis • If a summary of information about the criminal is given to the people choosing the criminal, then the results of the accusations picked from the line-up will improve.
Required Materials • Camera (that can take both pictures and videos) • Summary of information about the “suspect” • Papers • Permission Slips • Voting Papers • Subjects Which Can Be Tested • 2 volunteers to participate in filming and preparing the summary • 2 classes of students to pick the “criminal” from the photo line-up
Procedure • A video was created of the “crime scene”. • A picture were taken of the “suspect”. • “Filler” pictures were created on a computer. • The “suspect” photo was shown to two volunteers. • The volunteers wrote a description of the “suspect”. • A short summary of the information collected was written. • One group of students was shown the video of the “crime scene”, which was followed by the photo line-up. The students were asked to pick the “suspect”. • Votes were written down. • The second group was shown the video and photo line-up after the summary was read to them twice. They were asked to pick the “suspect”. • Votes were written down. • The results were recorded and compared.
Variables • Control • Group that was shown only the video and photo line-up • Independent • Group that heard the summary and was shown the video and photo line-up • Dependent • Accuracy of the votes • Constants • Video • Photo Line-up • Order of the pictures within the line-up • The day the experiment was performed
Data Comparisons A Look at Correct vs. Incorrect
Photo 1 vs. Photo 3 Group 1 Group 2 Number of Votes Per Photo Number of Votes Per Photo
Photo 2 vs. Photo 3 Group 1 Group 2 Number of Votes Per Photo Number of Votes Per Photo
Photo 4 vs. Photo 3 Group 1 Group 2 Number of Votes Per Photo Number of Votes Per Photo
Photo 5 vs. Photo 1 Group 1 Group 2 Number of Votes Per Photo Number of Votes Per Photo
Photo 6 vs. Photo 3 Group 1 Group 2 Number of Votes Per Photo Number of Votes Per Photo
Undecided vs. Photo 3 Group 1 Group 2 Number of Votes Per Photo Number of Votes Per Photo
Conclusion • Hypothesis: “If a summary of information about the criminal is given to the people choosing the criminal, then the results of the accusations picked from the line-up will improve.” • Not supported for the following possible reasons: • Looked for details vs. whole picture • Overwhelmed by number of details given • Perception of information differs from person to person • What Went Wrong, Improvements & Advancements: • Pictures should not be so similar • Create a longer video or shorter summary • No one should be given the option of “undecided” unless informed beforehand
Acknowledgements • Sources: • Barker, Barry M. "Photo Line-Up." Becoming a Police Officer: An Insider's Guide for a Career in Law Enforcement. Web. Oct. 2010. <http://careerpoliceofficer.com/PoliceandVictims/photo_line-up.html>. • Dittmann, Melissa. "Psychological Sleuths--Accuracy and the Accused." American Psychological Association (APA). Web. Oct. 2010. <http://www.apa.org/monitor/julaug04/accuracy.aspx>. • EasyBib: Free Bibliography Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago Citation Styles. Web. 31 Oct. 2010. <http://easybib.com/>. • Malpass, Roy S. "A Lineup Evaluation "Do-It-Yourself Kit" for Attorneys and Law Enforcement." Web. Oct. 2010. <http://eyewitness.utep.edu/Documents/DIY%20Kit.pdf>. • Science Fair Project Ideas, Answers, & Tools. Web. Oct. 2010. <http://sciencebuddies.com>. • SpringerLink. Web. 31 Oct. 2010. <http://www.springerlink.com/content/n1574627h45021k2/>. • Steblay, Nancy, Jennifer Dysart, Solomon Fulero, and R.C.L. Lindsay. "Eyewitness Accuracy Rates in Sequential and Simultaneous Lineup Presentations: A Meta-Analytic Comparison." Law and Human Behavior 25.5 (2001). Web. Oct. 2010. <http://nysda.org/Hot_Topics/Eyewitness_Evidence/EyewitnessAccuracyRates.pdf>. • Thank you to everyone in attendance for listening to my presentations. I would love to answer any questions that you may have.