Simple (closed) fracture: there is no skin wound leading to the fractre. • Compound (open) fracture: there is a wound leading to the fracture.The bone may protrude through the skin.
How do you suspect a fracture ? History of trauma followed by • pain, • inability to use the injured part, • deformity, • swelling , • local bruising, • localized tenderness, • crepitus or abnormal mobility (unnecessary painful maneuver)
First-aid for closed fracture: • Immobilize the injured part (splint the fracture): to reduce pain, prevent shock and prevent further soft tissue injury. • Effective splints can be made from rolled-up newspapers,magazines, blankets, cardboard or a stick.
Place the splint around the injured limb and hold it in place with a necktie, strip of cloth or belt. • The general rule is to splint a joint above and below the fracture.
You can tie an injured leg to the uninjured one, putting padding between the legs. • You can tap an injured arm to the chest (if the elbow is bent), or to the side (if the elbow is straight) placing padding between the body and the arm.
Do not try to set a broken bone yourself . The exceptions to this rule are when there is severe deformity or ischaemia distal to the fracture. • Apply ice (wrapped in cloth) to the injured area to help reduce swelling and inflammation (not in open fracture).
Do not give anything to eat or drink in case an operation is necessary. • Give analgesic anti-inflammatory drugs. • Watch out for signs of shock.
First-aid for open fractures: • Have the victim lie flat. • Remove clothing covering the wound. • Apply direct pressure to the wound to stop bleeding • Cover the wounded area with a clean cloth or dressing.
Continue to apply pressure as long as the wound bleeds. Add new dressings over existing ones. • Immobilize the injured area (splint the fracture): as mentioned above. • Do not try to push a protruding bone back under the skin.
Do not give anything to eat or drink. • Give analgesic to reduce pain and swelling.
Watch out for signs of shock. if present: - elevate the victims feet. - cover the victim with a blanket to keep him or her warm.
Give - antishock measures, - antitetanic serum, - antigas gangrene serum, - and antibiotics.