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Chapter 4: Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition. Achievement. Ability Effort Other People Luck. Research & Theory on Effort (pg. 50). Bernard Weiner, psychologist (1972, 1983) Popularized belief that effort enhances achievement. Research & Theory on Effort (pg. 50).

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Other People


research theory on effort pg 50
Research & Theory on Effort(pg. 50)
  • Bernard Weiner, psychologist (1972, 1983)
    • Popularized belief that effort enhances achievement.
research theory on effort pg 501
Research & Theory on Effort(pg. 50)
  • Covington (1983) and Harter (1980)
    • Research on importance of effort.
    • Effort is a motivational tool that can apply to any situation.
  • Not all students realize the importance of effort.
    • Studies demonstrate that some students are not aware that effort has a direct effect on success relative to task.
      • (Seligman, 1990, 1994; Urdan, Midgley, & Anderman 1998).
    • Obvious to adults, not to kids
    • Teachers must explain and exemplify effort.
  • Students can learn to change their beliefs on effort.
    • Demonstrating added effort will pay off in terms of achievement (Craske, 1985; Wilson & Linville, 1982)
    • Students taught relationship between effort and achievement increased achievement more that those taught time management and comprehension of new material (Van Overwalle & DeMetsenaere 1990).
teaching effort
Teaching Effort
  • Teach and exemplify the connection between effort and achievement.
    • Personal examples
    • Famous people
    • Familiar Stories
personal examples
Personal Examples



Childhood experience

Former student

Famous People

Think, Pair, Share

famous people
Famous People
  • “Rudy”
    • Notre Dame football walk on
    • Overcame his size through effort and hard work

jim abbott
Jim Abbott

MLB pitcher born with one armThrew a no-hitter for the Yankees in 1993

sam walton
Sam Walton
  • Business man and entrepreneur
  • Built Wal-Mart into an international corporation
familiar stories
Familiar Stories
  • The Little Engine That Could
    • Obvious…
  • The Photographic Elephant
    • Story of an elephant that wanted to be a photographer and despite everyone telling him elephant’s can’t take pictures he works hard to make his dreams come true.
  • Bobby the Mountain Climber
    • Bobby failed to climb a snowy mount 30 times before finally making it to the top through perseverance and effort.
recognition p 53
  • Wrong titles
    • praise
    • reward
  • Recognize
    • difficult tasks
    • change in behaviors
praise and reward as forms of recognition studies p 54
Praise and reward as forms of recognition Studies p.54
  • Intrinsic motivation
    • Deci 1971- paid college students to solve problems.
      • Found that the students that were paid spent less time on the puzzles during free time than did the experimental group that was motivated strictly on intrinsic motivation.
      • Deci indicated that students that are already intrinsically motivated to complete a task and are then given an extrinsic motivation will then have a decrease in intrinsic motivation.
research p 54 55
Research p. 54-55
  • Kohn 1973 – said the rewards decreased intrinsic motivation
  • Lepper, Greene, and Nisbett 1973 – study indicated that reward decreased intrinsic motivation
  • Morine-Dershimer – 1982 praise for easy tasks undermines students actual ability.

Mark Morgan 1984, Wiersma 1992, Cameron and Pierce 1994, p.55

    • Indicated that when you looked at all research rewards can have either undermining or enhancing effects depending on circumstances.
  • Wiersma 1992, Cameron and Pierce 1994 p.55
    • Indicated that rewards work when based on a standards
  • Cameron and Pierce 1994 p.56
    • Verbal rewards (positive feedback) work no matter how the study is being measured
conclusion of research
Conclusion of Research
  • Think recognizing student effort to change
  • recognizing specific tasks that students are accomplishing.
  • useful when given in the form of positive feedback
  • Stay away from tangible items (money and candy) if possible
classroom p 58 59
Classroom p.58-59
  • Personalize praise
  • “Pause, Prompt, and Praise
    • Pause
      • Use when students are engaged in a demanding activity
      • Ask students to stop working
      • Ask students why the task is difficult
    • Prompt
      • Give specific feedback to the task
      • Recommended to use rubrics
    • Praise
      • When student implements the staff suggestions.
      • Make sure you choose your words wisely by knowing your students
concrete symbols of recognition
Concrete Symbols of Recognition
  • Give tangibles
    • Specific
      • goals
      • Tasks
      • accomplishments
  • PBIS
keeping track of effort and achievement pg 52
Keeping Track of Effort and Achievement (pg. 52)
  • Students can see the connection between effort and achievement
  • Have students keep track periodically
  • If students reflect on it, it can heighten awareness
  • Rubric for beach drawing
research and theory on goal setting
Research and Theory on Goal Setting

Goal setting is the process of establishing a direction for learning (Marzano, 2001, pg. 93).

instructional goals narrow what students focus on pg 94
Instructional goals narrow what students focus on (pg. 94).
  • If a teacher sets a goal, students understand less than if a specific goal were not set.
  • Setting a goal focuses on students’ attention that they do not get information related to the goal.
instructional goals should not be too specific pg 94
Instructional goals should not be too specific (pg. 94).
  • Instructional goals stated in general formats produce higher effective learning.
  • Mager’s Preparing Instructional Objectives explains 3 characteristics:
    • Performance-states what the learner is expected to be able to do
    • Conditions- describes any conditions
    • Criterion-acceptable performance
students should be encouraged to personalize the teacher s goals pg 94 95
Students should be encouraged to personalize the teacher’s goals (pg. 94-95).
  • Teachers should establish classroom goals, but students should be encouraged to adapt to personal needs and desires.
  • This is why goals shouldn’t be too specific.
  • Students identify goals they will learn, but will contract for their grade (Kahle & Kelly, 1994, Miller & Kelly, 1994, Vollmer, 1995).
classroom practice in goal setting
Classroom Practice in Goal Setting
  • Specific but flexible goals
    • Goal: To understand how each of the main organs work individually and also as a system.
    • I know that _____________.
    • I want to know more about __________.


-Gives students flexibility and control over their learning.

research and theory on providing feedback
Research and Theory on Providing Feedback

Teachers provide student with feedback relative to how they are doing. (Marzano, 2001).

“The most powerful single modification that enhances achievement is feedback. The simplest prescription for improving education must be ‘dollops of feedback.’” (Hattie, 1992).


What does feedback look like? Think of a time when you received feedback. What does it look, sound, and feel like?

Think for 1 minute alone

Notate for 1 minute

Talk for 1 minute with partner

feedback should be corrective in nature
Feedback should be “corrective” in nature
  • Provides students with what they are doing correct and not correct.
  • Telling students that answers on a test are right or wrong has a negative effect on achievement.
  • The best feedback involves an explanation.
feedback should be timely
Feedback should be timely

Feedback given immediately after a test is best.

The more the delay, the less improvement.

Giving a test immediately after a learning situation is less effective than giving it after one day.

feedback should be specific to a criterion
Feedback should be specific to a criterion

For feedback to be most useful, it should reference a specific target of a skill.

Also called criterion-referenced feedback.

More effective on learning that norm-referenced feedback (compares students with other students).

students can effectively provide some of their own feedback
Students can effectively provide some of their own feedback

Teachers are not the only ones to give feedback, students can monitor their own progress (Trammel, Schloss, & Alper, 1994).

Students can keep track of performance (Lindsley, 1972).

Students can keep a chart of accuracy and/or speed while learning a new skill.

types of feedback
Types of feedback
  • Rubrics
  • Specific notes
  • Student-led