碧山学校 苏杰. 现在完成时的构成. 助动词 have ( has ) + 动词的过去分词 注： has 用于第三人称单数， have 用于其他所有人称。 规则动词的过去分词变化与过去式相同，不规则变化则须单独记忆。. 用法：. 1. 现在完成时表示过去发生或已经完成的某一动作对现在造成的影响或结果。 ( 汉语中常用“已经”、“过”、“了”等表达）通常与表示包括现在在内的时间副词 just ， already, before, yet, never, ever 等状语连用。例如：
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助动词have (has) + 动词的过去分词
注：has 用于第三人称单数，have 用于其他所有人称。规则动词的过去分词变化与过去式相同，不规则变化则须单独记忆。
1. 现在完成时表示过去发生或已经完成的某一动作对现在造成的影响或结果。(汉语中常用“已经”、“过”、“了”等表达）通常与表示包括现在在内的时间副词 just，already, before, yet, never, ever 等状语连用。例如：
① I have never heard of that before.
② Have you ever ridden a horse?
③ She has already finished the work.
④ Have you milked the cow yet? Yes, I have done that already.
⑤ I’ve just lost my math book.
2.现在完成时表示过去已经开始，持续到现在,也许还会持续下去的动作或状态。可以和表示延续的时间状语连用。 如for、since 等引导的时间状语。（注意：句中谓语动词要用延续性动词）
for: +一段时间 for a year for two weeks for three years
过去的某一时刻, since nine since last week
since you came since you got home.
注意:for 和since 所引导的时间状语都表示一段时间.
He has been away since last week.
He has been away for one week.
★have / has been (to) 表示“曾经到过某地”，说话时此人不在那里，已经回来。侧重指经历。
★have / has gone (to) 表示某人“已经去某地了”，说话时此人可能在路上或已到那里，反正不在这里。
He has been to Beijing. 他曾去过北京。
He has gone to Beijing. 他已经去北京了。
瞬间动词可以用于现在完成时，但不能和表示一段时间的状语连用。如可说“He has left.”但不能说“He has left for three years.” 如果要表达“他已走了三年了”可用以下几种表达法：
He left here three years ago.
二、用“It is +一段时间＋since ＋一般过去时从句 ”
It is three years since he left here.
三、用“ 一段时间＋have/ has passed + since + 一般过去时从句”
buy catch (get) a cold
borrow come/go /become
have a cold
join the army
join the Party
go to school
be a soldier
be a Party member
be a student
die finish begin
leave fall sleep
go to school
join the army
be in school
be in the army
We have had the book for three years.
We bought the book three years ago.
He has had a cold for three days.
He caught a cold three days ago.
I have kept the book since last week.
I borrowed the book last week.
I have been a student for over two years.
I became a student two years ago.
Mr Black has been dead for three years.
Mr Black died three years ago.
Xiao Ming has been a soldier for half a year.
Xiao Ming joined the army half a year ago.
We have been students for eight years.
The class has been over for ten minutes.
The film has been on for an hour.
I have visited the factory.
I visited the factory last year.
－When did you have it? －At seven thirty.
How many words have you learned by heart?
How did you learn them by heart?
He has been a league member for two months.
He joined the Youth League two months ago.
( )1.You’ve never seen such a wonderful film before, _______?
A. haven’t you B. have you C. do you D. don’t you
( ) 2. —I have watched the game.
—When ____ you ____ it?
A. have; watched B. do; watch C. did ;watch D. will; watch
( )3. Mr. Green ____ in China since five years ago.
A. lived B. has lived C. lives D. is going to live
( )4. His grandma ______ for two years.
A. died B. has died C. was dead D. has been dead
－ She ____ to Shanghai. She will be back in two days.
A. has gone B. has been C. goes D. had gone
( )6. －_____ you ____to the United Stated ?
－ No, never,but I went to Canada a few years ago
A. Have; been B. Have; gone C. Did; go D. Do; go
( )7. You haven’t changed your mind,_______?
A. do you B. are you C. have you D. did you
( )8. How long have you _____ the football team of
A. played B. been at C. joined D been on
—I have _____ to Kunming with my friends.
A been , gone B been , been C gone , been D gone, gone
( )10. How long have you ____ this book?
A. bought B. borrowed C. had D. lent
( )11. —Excuse me, ____ you seen the film yet?
—Yes, I _____ it last night.
A have, see B have, have seen C have, seen D have, saw
( )12. He has never ridden a horse before,_____?
A. is he B. isn’t he C. hasn’t he D. has he