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The Energy Directors Jeremy Nash, Chris Lamb, Kelsey Whitesell, Josh Chircus . A Secure, Multi-Channel Laser Communication System for Operation in High Noise Environments The LaserShark . Project Objectives. Create a free-space laser communication system capable of:

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the energy directors jeremy nash chris lamb kelsey whitesell josh chircus
The Energy Directors

Jeremy Nash, Chris Lamb, Kelsey Whitesell, Josh Chircus

A Secure, Multi-Channel Laser Communication System for Operation in High Noise Environments The LaserShark

project objectives
Project Objectives
  • Create a free-space laser communication system capable of:
    • Functioning in a high noise environment
    • Encryption for secure transmission
    • Transmitting multiple signals simultaneously
    • Long-range, line-of-sight communication

JEREMY

applications and advantages
Applications and Advantages
  • Applications:
    • Military communications
    • Space communications
    • High bandwidth applications
  • Advantages:
    • Fast (high bandwidth)
    • Lack of interference with other signals
    • Secure (directed)

JEREMY

goals
Goals
  • Low Priority
    • Transmits digital audio and plays back audio successfully (one-way) over 1 ft
    • Performs well in high noise environment
    • Encryption
  • Medium
    • Time division multiplexing (TDM)
    • 2 way communication
    • Alignment feedback system at beginning of/during transmission
    • Long distance transmission (>10 ft)
  • High
    • Video transmission and raw data (digital)
    • Continuous automatic alignment including beam splitter/Quad-Detector feedback

JEREMY

functional outline of approach
Functional Outline of Approach

* For tw0-way communication, this same system will be mirrored and added

JEREMY

diagram of design

Packaged Transceiver Units

Side view

Laser and photodiode on optical mounts

clamp

Back view

Diagram of Design

clamp

power

ground

Bracket and motorized stages

front

Two-way communication

Inside the package

Alignment system

Tripods

Transceiver Unit Detail

PCB

JEREMY

constraints
Constraints
  • Need short processing time to avoid long delays in transmission
  • Need line-of-sight
  • Mechanical stability
  • Laser beam attenuation constrained
  • Cost
  • Manpower
  • Need spacing between laser beams for two-way communication

JEREMY

safety and environmental impact
Safety and Environmental Impact
  • Environmental impact
    • Hard to dispose of parts
    • Beam doesn’t interfere with the environment because it’s directed energy at optical frequency (no FCC regulation yet)
  • Safety
    • Laser can damage eye
    • Low power laser (Class IIIa)

CHRIS

laser safety
Laser Safety
  • Class IIIa (continuous wave, 1 to 5 mW)
    • Visible Wavelengths (350 – 800 nm)
    • Low power/area (typically < 2 mW/cm2)
    • Corneal damage only (safe viewing time is 0.25 seconds)
    • Damage includes non-permanent retinal damage if viewed for 1 or 2 seconds, permanent retinal damage if viewed longer than a few seconds
    • Translated: Don't look into the laser (duh).

CHRIS

manufacturability and sustainability
Manufacturability and Sustainability
  • Manufacturability
    • Photodiode needs to be accurate
    • Motors need to be high resolution
  • Sustainability
    • Low power consumption
    • Resilient parts and reliable processors
    • Easy to fix because its relatively straight-forward to troubleshoot

CHRIS

details of design12
Details of Design
  • Signal Source(s): one or more current/voltage signal source(s), for example the output from an iPod
  • Analog to Digital Converter: Allows for encryption of analog signal
  • Encryption: performed by encoding data from signal source with a standard encryption algorithm, implemented on a MCU
  • Laser diode: output depends on current input, so the laser diode itself is an AM modulator
  • Optics: Optical systems could include the following:
    • Neutral density filters and mirrors to simulate longer distances in the lab
    • Spatial filters and collimating lenses to improve signal quality
  • Demodulator: at the receiver; this will consist of a photodiode to detect the optical signal and turn it into an electrical signal
  • Decryption: also implemented on an MCU
  • Digital to Analog: Allows for playback of decrypted analog signal
  • Output: signal could be output to a speaker for playing a sound, to a computer to display the received signal, etc.

CHRIS

block diagram of tranceivers
Block Diagram of Tranceivers

Motor control

Motors

MCU – Motor

Align command

Alignment Status

Mux

De-Mux

MCU – Comm

Hardware Encoder

Transimpedance Amplifier

Laser

Photodiode

CHRIS

power
Power
  • Power Requirements
    • Laser: 5 V DC/3 A = 15W
    • MCU on PCB (x2 per transceiver = 4 total): 5 V DC /1.6 A= 8W
    • Transimpedance amplifier: currently unknown, will measure
  • Power Supply
    • OTS power supply for each system
      • AC/DC converter from wall to DC, probably 15V for rail power

CHRIS

four quadrant system versus camera system
Four-quadrant system versus Camera System

Beam Splitter

Laser Beam

Rx

Tx

Focusing lens

KELSEY

Four Quadrant Detector

photodiodes rx and laser diodes tx
Photodiodes (Rx) and Laser Diodes (Tx)
  • Photodiodes-Thorlabs FDS100
    • 350 - 1100 nm
    • High Responsivity in red (635 nm) range
    • Fast recovery time (35MHz)
  • Laser Diodes from Edmund Optics
    • Built-in safety circuitry
      • Maintains functionality
      • Prevents back-current
      • Provides some temperature control
    • Max 5mW power (class 3a laser)
    • 635 nm (red) center wavelength
    • Narrow bandwidth (± 10 nm)
    • Low current draw
    • Modulation bandwidth 6Hz-2MHz

KELSEY

additional optical components
Additional Optical Components
  • Components to simulate additional distance due to limited lab space
    • Neutral Density (ND) filters for attenuation
    • Mirrors
  • Beam Splitter
  • Focusing lens
  • If necessary: lenses for improving quality and/or collimating

KELSEY

main cpu functions requirements for high goals
Main CPU Functions/Requirements for High Goals
  • Filtering noise
  • ADC/DAC
  • Motor Control for alignment
  • Encryption/Decryption
  • Switching between modes of operation
    • Audio, Raw Data Transfer, and Video options

KELSEY

software flow
Software Flow

Turn on laser

Alignment Procedure

ADC, Encryption, signal modulated onto the laser

Optics

DAC

Noise filtering

KELSEY

Output

encoding
Encoding

Digital Signal After ADC

Input Signal

Example Sample

Input Signal with DC Offset

Example Transmit-Ready Signal

KELSEY

processor
Processor
  • MSP430 xxx series
    • 8-16MHz
    • ADC/DAC options
    • Up to 64 GPIO options
    • Up to 120kB of RAM
    • Ultra-low power usage

JOSH

mechanical components
Mechanical Components
  • Motorized track actuators for lateral translations
  • Stepper Motor for tilt adjustment
  • Plastic packaging for transceiver circuits and components
  • Stands (possibly tripod)
  • Clamps and Brackets for securing transceiver units
  • Various Mounts (can be machined, if need be)

JOSH

funding and grants
Funding and Grants
  • DEPS Funding (Granted)
    • $2200 all purpose funding
    • Requires a report upon completion
  • UROP Funding (Pending)
    • Up to $1000 funding
    • Requires a report upon completion
      • These grants should be enough to fund our project.

JOSH

potential schedule and budget related issues
Potential Schedule and Budget Related Issues
  • Failure to implement automated alignment due to cost of motors or unforeseen mechanical issues.
    • Mitigate by finding low-cost motors and seeking advice from mechanical engineer.
  • Failure to implement video transmission due to insufficient time.
    • Budget time effectively and seek advice for video transmission requirements.
  • If a rock gets into the system:
    • There is no possible mitigation – all members perform Hari Kari.
  • Chris loses energy – not possible.

JOSH