ch9 breeding by interspecific or intergeneric hybridization n.
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  1. Ch9. Breeding by interspecific or intergeneric hybridization 1. interspecific or intergenerichybridization 2. Cross incompatibility 3. Breeding Methodology

  2. 1. 종속간 교잡 (interspecific or intergeneric hybridization) (1) Definition (Chang TT & Vaughan DA. 1991. Conservation and potentials of rice genetic resources. In Biotechnology in Agric. & Forestry 14 (Rice), Bajaj YPS ed. Springer-Verlag publ. pp. 531-552) (2) Various uses of wild species <1> - Introgression breeding : resistance, quality, yield, ... - The induction of haploids through pseudogamy in potato, alfalfa, cotton. popular, and via chromosome elimination in barley and wheat (Nitzsche W & Wenzel G, 1977. Haploids in Plant breeding, Verlag Paul Parey publ. 101p.) - The (re)synthesis of allopolyploid crops, e.g., in Brassicaceae and Gramineae. - The induction of cytoplasmic male sterility, e.g., in wheat, rice, potato, tobacco, sunflower, Brassica crops

  3. (3) Choice of wild species - close to cultivated species : to overcome cross cross-incompatibility and/or sterility problems - diploids preferred : in order to easily eliminate undesirable traits of wild species (4) Examples A. Amphidiploids - Triticum (amphidiploid, allohexaploid) Triticumaestivum AABBDD 1립계 2립계 X DD Triticumtauschii AABB Triticumturgidum 1립계 BB AA X Triticummonoccum Agropyron? - Triticasecale: AABBDDRR, AABBRR X RR AABBDD Secalecereale Triticumaestivum T. turgidum ABDR wheat(42) rye(14) X RR AABBDD Chromosome doubling Triticale(56) AABBDDRR ABR 2n=56 Chromosome doubling AABBRR 2n=42

  4. B. Interspecific/intergenerichybridization grouped by genome and chromosome number i) Same genome, same chromosome number N. alta (n=9)<A> x N. sanderae (n=9) <A> N. tomentosa (n=12) <T> x N. tomentosiformis (n=12) <T> T. aestivum(n=21) <ABD> x T. spelta (n=21) <ABD> O. sativa (n=12) <A> x O. nivara (n=12) <A> ii) Partially same genome, different chromosome number N. rustica (n=24) <PU> x N. paniculata (n=12) <P> T. aestivum (n=21) <ABD> x T. monocum (n=7) <A> T. dicoccum (n=14) <AB> x T. spelta (n=21) <ABD> iii) different genome, same chromosome number O. sativa (n=12) <A> x O. punctata (n=12) <B> iv) different genome, different chromosome number N. suaveolens (n=16) <Su> x N. glutinosa (n=12) <Gu> T. aestivum (n=21) <ABD> x Secalecereale (n=7) <R> O. sativa (n=12) <A> x O. grandiglumis (n=24) <CCDD> Success rate in Interspecific /intergeneric crossing - I > ii > iii > iv - 2~3 genomes x 1 genome (♀) (♂) - chromosome number higher (♀) x lower (♂) - Self compatible x S. incompatible (♀) (♂)

  5. 2. Cross incompatibility incompatibility : a mechanism that "prevents or disturbs the functioning of the pollen-pistil relationship --- a precise and specific reaction to the negative effects of inbreeding active inhibition incongruity: the incompleteness of the relationship as a byproduct of evolutionary divergence passive rejection Williams EG. 1987. Interspecific hybridization in pasture legumes. PBR 5. pp.237-305

  6. (1) Pre-fertilization barriers --- similar mechanism to self-incompatibility - Arrest of pollen tube growth, - Lack of fertilization * Heslop-Harrison. 1982. Pollen-stigma interaction and cross-incompatibility in the grasses. Science 215: 1358-1364

  7. * Evans.1962. Euphytica 11: 164-176, 256-262 : Trifolium에서 relationship between cross-compatibility andgrafting compatibility --- related to anatomical similarity among species

  8. (2) Post-fertilization barriers A. Chromosome elimination <1> H. vulgare x H. bulbosum T. aestivum x H. bulbosum H. vulgare x H. marinum Wheat x sorghum " x maize: chromosome-eliminated B. Hybrid embryo breakdown - delayed cell division in embryo (Roupakias,1986. Euphytica. 35:175-183) : Vicia fava x V.narbonensis F1 embryo는 2 weeks after crossing 200 cells parental embryo는 “ “  2000-5000 cells - breakdown of embryo --- possibly due to endosperm abnormalities * Abboet al. 1991. Bot. Gaz. 152(3): 316-320  water and nutrient supply to hybrid embryo were blocked in Medicago의 interspecific crossing  aborted * Rabakoarihanta외 1979. TAG 54: 55-59 Williams 외 1980. Bot.Gaz.141: 252-257 - failure of the endosperm ( followed by starvation of the hybrid embryo) reason: ' endosperm genome의 genetic unbalance ' marternal tissue와 zygote의 genetic composition의 부조화 * EBN(endosperm balance number) hypothesis --- Solanum, Trifolium(클로버), Avena등. Parrott & Smith. 1985. Evidence for the existence of endosperm balance number ~ ~Can. J. Genet. & Cytol. 28: 581-586.  : Each species has an effective endosperm ploidylevel(termed EBN) that determines its crossing behavior. For a cross to be successful, the endosperm must have a ratio of two EBNs from the female parent to one EBN from the male parent. 즉 same EBN  successful development of endosperm in hybrid seeds

  9. (3) Genetics for interspecific incompatibility ○ Nettancourt. 1977. Incompatibility in angiosperms * Incongruity hypothesis

  10. ○ Lange 외. 1976. Euphytica 25: 609-620 * dominant alleles in wheat-rye crosses : Kr1, Kr2 --> crossability genes ' additive effect ' Kr1의 effect --- bigger wheat(T.aestivum) Hope(Kr1Kr1Kr2Kr2) x rye ↓ X (no zygote) Chinese spring x rye (kr1kr1kr2kr2) ↓ O C.S./Hope 5B (chr.substut. line) x rye (Kr1Kr1kr2kr2) ↓ poor crossability * Kr1은 located on 5B Hope에서 5B가 eliminated된 plant Kr2Kr2 alone x rye  intermediate crossability ( 5A? -- not confirmed)

  11. ○ Kr1 on 5BL, Kr2 on 5AL, Kr3 on 5D and Kr4 on 1A, with Kr1 having the largest effect on crossability(http://www.jic.ac.uk/staff/graham-moore/index.htm) * Chr. 5B contains Ph1 locus. ○ Manickavelu et al 2009. Plant Syst. Evol. 278: 125-131 - CS (kr1kr2) x Mara 5B (Kr1 kr2) 의 progeny RILs 들을 crossed with rye to know the effect of Kr1 - cDNA-AFLP 방법으로 identified candidate genes for Kr1 ○ Alfares et al. 2009 Genetics 183: 469–481. Fine Mapping and Marker Development for the crossabilitygene SKr on chromosome 5BS of hexaploidwheat. - There was a SKr on chromosome 5BS, besides Kr1 on 5BL - Fine-mapped and Identified candidate gene for SKr

  12. ○ Laurie and Bennett (1987) TAG 73: 403-409 - The effect of the crossability loci Krland Kr2on fertilization frequency in hexaploid wheat x maize crosses - Highbury = Kr1 Kr2 CS (5B) = Kr1 kr2 CS = kr1 kr2 ==> - Even Highbury was compatible with maize - No significant difference between CS(5B) and CS. Why?? ===> The effect of Kr1 and Kr2 may differ along species.

  13. (4) Methods for overcoming interspecific incompatibility * Khush & Brar. 1992.

  14. a. Application of growth substances : Auxins, GA3 b. In vitro fertilization or stump pollination stigmatic pollination styler “ placental “ intra-ovarian “ : injection of pollen soln directly into ovary stump pollination : on intact plants without ovary culture,particularly whenstyle length of two species are different--- Solanum, Nicotiana등 c. Irradiation of flower buds --- X-ray : removal of interspecific incompatibility by means of induced mutations d. Use of mentor pollen irradiation freezing and thawing on mentor pollen + incompatible pollen methanol treatment --- effective in Populas, Sesamum * incompatibility within style tissue was maintained. e. Treatment of stigma or pollen with organic solvents : n-hexane, ethyl acetate 등, treatment onstigma before pollination or pollination after pollenwashing with chemicals --- Populas등 f. Somatic hybridization

  15. g. Use of immunosuppressors : breakdown of immune system --- injection treatment of amino-n-caproicacid(EACA), salicylic acid, acriflavin, etc during megasporogenesis  effective in crosses of wheat x barley, maize x sorghum h. Bridge cross N. rependa (RR) N. sylvestris (SS) N. tabacum (TT) compatible: RR x SS, SS x TT incompatible : RR x TT i. Embryo culture j. Backcross k. Others * bud pollination * crossing at low temp. condition ( 20℃ in rice interspecific cross) * crossing after chromosome doubling  Rice Genetics II p.149 Fig.1

  16. * genotypic variation in success rate <2: p.69 Tab.12>

  17. 3. Breeding Methodology (1) Introgression

  18. (2) Chromosome substitution or addition Chu. 1982. Anther culture of rice and its significance in distant hybridization. In Rice Tissue Culture Planning Conf., IRRI: 47-53 (3) Amphidiploid: AABBDD, AABBRR 등 (4) Others -- haploid breeding, CMS