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Excretory System. Ewww! Giggle, giggle. Digestive System Respiratory System Skin Urinary System. H 2 O, undigested food H 2 O, CO 2 H 2 O, salts H 2 O, salts, poisons Why do we need to drink lots of water?. Excretion. Regulating Fluids. Hypothalamus – in mid-brain

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excretory system

Excretory System

Ewww!

Giggle, giggle

excretion
Digestive System

Respiratory System

Skin

Urinary System

H2O, undigested food

H2O, CO2

H2O, salts

H2O, salts, poisons

Why do we need to drink lots of water?

Excretion
regulating fluids
Regulating Fluids
  • Hypothalamus – in mid-brain
  • Detects fluid levels in blood
  • Sends hormone into bloodstream
  • Kidneys respond by increasing/decreasing urine output.
kidneys
Kidneys
  • Main organs of excretory system
  • Bean-shaped
  • Red – because of blood supply
  • Back of abdomen near waist
  • Filter all blood every 5 minutes
filtration step 1
Filtration – Step 1
  • Blood from renal (kidney) artery →
  • Capillaries (all wadded up) →
  • Nephron – cup and tube (duct)
    • Water, sugar, salt, waste → cup
    • Red cells, proteins left in capillary
    • Liquid → tubule
filtration step 2
Filtration – Step 2
  • Most sugar, salt, H2O reabsorbed from tubules to capillaries
  • → renal vein
  • →main circulatory system
urine
Urine
  • Left behind in tubules
  • Excess water, wastes
  • Urea
    • excess amino acids
    • NH3+ CO2
  • Average 1 liter/day
liver
Liver
  • Broken-down blood cells – bile
  • Digestive fluid
diseases
Diseases
  • Imbalances
    • Fluids
    • Salts
  • Blockages
    • Kidney stones
    • Ultrasound blasts
  • Infections - Nephritis
  • Urine tests
    • for glucose (diabetes)
    • protein (heart disease)
dialysis
Dialysis
  • Kidney failure – excess fluid
  • Patients can’t urinate
  • Artificial kidney filters blood
  • 2-3 times weekly
  • 2-4 hours at a time
transplant
Transplant
  • Kidney failure
  • Live or dead donor
  • Blood matches needed
preventing kidney diseases
Preventing Kidney Diseases
  • Diet
  • Exercise
  • Blood Pressure
the rest of the story
The Rest of the Story
  • Tubules
  • Ureters
  • Bladder (up to ½ liter)
  • Urethra
  • Sphincter muscle