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how to use this presentation

How to Use This Presentation

  • To View the presentation as a slideshow with effects

select “View” on the menu bar and click on “Slide Show.”

  • To advance through the presentation, click the right-arrow key or the space bar.
  • From the resources slide, click on any resource to see a presentation for that resource.
  • From the Chapter menu screen click on any lesson to go directly to that lesson’s presentation.
  • You may exit the slide show at any time by pressing the Esc key.
resources
Resources

Chapter Presentation

Visual Concepts

Transparencies

Standardized Test Prep

objectives

Section 1 Composition of Matter

Chapter 2

Objectives
  • Definethe term matter.
  • Explainthe relationship between elements and atoms.
  • Draw and label a model of the structure of an atom.
  • Explain howcompounds affect an atom’s stability.
  • Contrast covalent and ionic bonds.
table of contents

Chapter 2

Chemistry of Life

Table of Contents

Section 1 Composition of Matter

Section 2 Energy

Section 3 Water and Solutions

at the bell review
At the Bell Review

1) Major characteristics all living things have in common are

  • metabolism b. response to stimuli
  • both a and b d. neither a nor b

2) 750 grams = _____ kg.

  • 7,500 b. 7.50
  • 0.750 d. 0.0750

3) The ocular lens in a microscope has a 10x magnification and the objective lens has a 40x magnification. The total magnification is

  • 4x b. 40x

c. 400x d. 4,000x

4) Describe how natural selection causes adaptations in organisms.

5) Pairs of electrons are shared between atoms in a covalent bond.

TRUE or FALSE

big ideas
Big Ideas
  • Life emerges due to the chemical organization of matter into cells.
  • Structure is related to function at all biological levels of organization.
  • Eukaryotic cells can differentiate and organize making it possible for multicellularity.
matter

Section 1 Composition of Matter

Chapter 2

Matter
  • Matteris anything that occupies space and has mass.
  • Massis the quantity of matter an object has.
elements and atoms

Section 1 Composition of Matter

Chapter 2

Elements and Atoms
  • Elementsare made of a single kind of atom and cannot be broken down by chemical means into simpler substances.
  • Atoms are composed of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
  • http://ptable.com/
elements and atoms continued

Section 1 Composition of Matter

Chapter 2

Elements and Atoms, continued
  • The Nucleus
    • Protons and neutrons make up the nucleus of the atom.
elements and atoms continued1

Section 1 Composition of Matter

Chapter 2

Elements and Atoms, continued
  • Electrons
    • Electronsmove about the nucleus in orbitals.
    • An orbital is a three-dimensional region around a nucleus that indicates the probable location of an electron.
elements and atoms continued2

Section 1 Composition of Matter

Chapter 2

Elements and Atoms, continued
  • Isotopes
    • Atoms of the same element that have a different number of neutrons are calledisotopes.
slide12

Section 1 Composition of Matter

Chapter 2

Compounds

  • Compoundsconsist of atoms of two or more elements that are joined by chemical bonds in a fixed proportion.
keystone bio question

Section 1 Composition of Matter

Chapter 2

Keystone Bio Question

Carbon is found in all known forms of life. Which statement best describes why carbon is uniquely suited to forming macromolecules such as those found in living organisms?

A. Carbon forms large, flat compounds that have increased surface area available for reactions.

B. Carbon forms large, three-dimensional compounds that are not chemically reactive.

C.Carbon forms strong, stable bonds with up to four other atoms, including carbon atoms.

D. Carbon forms weak bonds with other atoms that can be easily broken to release energy.

slide14

Section 1 Composition of Matter

Chapter 2

Compounds, continued

  • Covalent Bonds
    • A covalent bond is formed when two atoms share electrons.
slide15

Section 1 Composition of Matter

Chapter 2

Compounds, continued

  • Ionic Bonds
    • An ionic bond is formed when one atom gives up an electron to another. The positive ion is then attracted to a negative ion to form the ionic bond.
slide17

Section 2 Energy

Chapter 2

Objectives

  • Describethe physical properties of each state of matter.
  • Describethe role of reactants and products in chemical reactions.
  • Explainthe relationship between enzymes and activation energy.
  • Explainhow oxidation and reduction reactions are linked.
slide18

Section 2 Energy

Chapter 2

Energy and Matter

  • States of Matter
    • Addition of energy to a substance can cause its state to change from a solid to a liquid and from a liquid to a gas.
slide19

Section 2 Energy

Chapter 2

Energy and Chemical Reactions

  • Reactantsare substances that enter chemical reactions.
  • Products are substances produced by chemical reactions.
slide21

Section 2 Energy

Chapter 2

Energy and Chemical Reactions, continued

  • Activation Energy
    • Enzymes lower the amount of activation energy necessary for a reaction to begin in living systems.
    • Enzymes are
    • Biological catalysts.
    • (reduce amount
    • of energy needed
    • for reaction to take place)
slide23

Section 2 Energy

Chapter 2

Energy and Chemical Reactions, continued

  • Oxidation Reduction Reactions
    • A chemical reaction in which electrons are exchanged between atoms is called an oxidation-reduction reaction.
    • Oxidation: a reactant loses one or more electrons (becomes more positive)
    • Reduction: a reactant gains one or more electrons (becomes more negative)
slide24

Section 3 Water and Solutions

Chapter 2

Objectives

  • Describethe structure of a water molecule.
  • Explainhow water’s polar nature affects its ability to dissolve substances.
  • Outline the relationship between hydrogen bonding and the different properties of water.
  • Identify the roles of solutes and solvents in solutions.
  • Differentiate between acids and bases.
slide25

Section 3 Water and Solutions

Chapter 2

Polarity

  • Water = polarmolecule
    • due to anuneven distribution of charge
  • Electrons in a water molecule are shared unevenly between hydrogen and oxygen.
slide26

Section 3 Water and Solutions

Chapter 2

Polarity, continued

  • Solubility of Water
    • polarity of water makes it effective at dissolving other polar substances
      • Ex. sugars, ionic compounds, and some proteins
slide27

Section 3 Water and Solutions

Chapter 2

Hydrogen Bonding

  • hydrogen bond= force of attraction between a hydrogen molecule with a partial positive charge and another atom or molecule with a partial or full negative charge
slide28

Section 3 Water and Solutions

Chapter 2

Hydrogen Bonding, continued

  • Cohesion and Adhesion
    • Cohesion = attractive force that holds molecules of a single substance together
      • Ex. Group of water molecules
    • Adhesion= attractive force between two particles of different substances
      • Ex. water molecules & glass molecules
slide29

Section 3 Water and Solutions

Chapter 2

Solutions

  • solution= solute + solvent
    • Ex. Solute = Kool-aid
    • Ex. Solvent = water
slide30

Section 3 Water and Solutions

Chapter 2

Acids and Bases

  • Ionization of Water
    • Water ionizes intohydronium ions(H3O+) and hydroxide ions (OH–).
      • …because of the exchanging of protons, H2O dissociates into these ions…
slide31

Section 3 Water and Solutions

Chapter 2

Acids and Bases, continued

  • Acids
    • Acidic solutions= more hydronium ions
  • Bases
    • Basic solutions= more hydroxide ions
slide32

Section 3 Water and Solutions

Chapter 2

Acids and Bases, continued

  • pH
    • pH scale – compares concentrations of hydronium ions to hydroxide ions in a solution
      • ranges from 0 (acidic) to 14 (basic)
        • 7 = neutral
slide34

Section 3 Water and Solutions

Chapter 2

Acids and Bases, continued

  • Buffers
    • Buffers= neutralize
      • either by adding acid or base
multiple choice

Chapter 2

Standardized Test Prep

Multiple Choice

1. The way in which elements bond to form compounds depends on which of the following?

A. the model of the atom

B. the structural formula of the compound

C. the dissociation of the ions in the compound

D. the number and arrangement of electrons in the atoms of the elements

multiple choice continued

Chapter 2

Standardized Test Prep

Multiple Choice, continued

1. The way in which elements bond to form compounds depends on which of the following?

A. the model of the atom

B. the structural formula of the compound

C. the dissociation of the ions in the compound

D. the number and arrangement of electrons in the atoms of the elements

multiple choice continued1

Chapter 2

Standardized Test Prep

Multiple Choice, continued

2. If an atom is made up of 6 protons, 7 neutrons, and 6 electrons, what is its atomic number?

F. 6

G. 7

H. 13

J. 19

multiple choice continued2

Chapter 2

Standardized Test Prep

Multiple Choice, continued

2. If an atom is made up of 6 protons, 7 neutrons, and 6 electrons, what is its atomic number?

F. 6

G. 7

H. 13

J. 19

slide39

Chapter 2

Standardized Test Prep

Multiple Choice, continued

The graph below shows the energy in a chemical reaction as the reaction progresses. Use the graph to answer the questions that follow.

3. The amount of energy needed for this chemical reaction to begin is shown by the line rising from the reactants. What is this energy called?

A. chemical energy

B. electrical energy

C. activation energy

D. mechanical energy

slide40

Chapter 2

Standardized Test Prep

Multiple Choice, continued

The graph below shows the energy in a chemical reaction as the reaction progresses. Use the graph to answer the questions that follow.

3. The amount of energy needed for this chemical reaction to begin is shown by the line rising from the reactants. What is this energy called?

A. chemical energy

B. electrical energy

C. activation energy

D. mechanical energy

slide41

Chapter 2

Standardized Test Prep

Multiple Choice, continued

The graph below shows the energy in a chemical reaction as the reaction progresses. Use the graph to answer the questions that follow.

4. Suppose that this reaction needs a catalyst to proceed. In the absence of a catalyst, the activation energy would be which of the following?

F. larger than what is shown

G. the same as what is shown

H. smaller than what is shown

J. not much different from what is shown

slide42

Chapter 2

Standardized Test Prep

Multiple Choice, continued

The graph below shows the energy in a chemical reaction as the reaction progresses. Use the graph to answer the questions that follow.

4. Suppose that this reaction needs a catalyst to proceed. In the absence of a catalyst, the activation energy would be which of the following?

F. larger than what is shown

G. the same as what is shown

H. smaller than what is shown

J. not much different from what is shown

slide43

Chapter 2

Standardized Test Prep

Multiple Choice, continued

The graph below shows the energy in a chemical reaction as the reaction progresses. Use the graph to answer the questions that follow.

5. What is an aqueous solution that contains more hydroxide ions than hydronium ions called?

A. a gas

B. a base

C. a solid

D. an acid

slide44

Chapter 2

Standardized Test Prep

Multiple Choice, continued

The graph below shows the energy in a chemical reaction as the reaction progresses. Use the graph to answer the questions that follow.

5. What is an aqueous solution that contains more hydroxide ions than hydronium ions called?

A. a gas

B. a base

C. a solid

D. an acid

slide45

Chapter 2

Standardized Test Prep

Multiple Choice, continued

6. Oxidation : loss :: reduction :

F. win

G. gain

H. take

J. forfeit

slide46

Chapter 2

Standardized Test Prep

Multiple Choice, continued

6. Oxidation : loss :: reduction :

F. win

G. gain

H. take

J. forfeit

slide47

Chapter 2

Standardized Test Prep

Multiple Choice, continued

The illustration below is a space-filling model of water. Use the model to answer the following question.

7. The covalent bonds on the water molecule depicted in the picture above has partial positive charges on the hydrogen atom and a partial negative charge on the oxygen atom. What do the partial positive and partial negative charges on this water molecule mean?

A. Water is an ion.

B. Water is a polar molecule.

C. Water needs a proton and two electrons to be stable.

D. Oxygen atoms and hydrogen atoms have opposite charges.

slide48

Chapter 2

Standardized Test Prep

Multiple Choice, continued

The illustration below is a space-filling model of water. Use the model to answer the following question.

7. The covalent bonds on the water molecule depicted in the picture above has partial positive charges on the hydrogen atom and a partial negative charge on the oxygen atom. What do the partial positive and partial negative charges on this water molecule mean?

A. Water is an ion.

B. Water is a polar molecule.

C. Water needs a proton and two electrons to be stable.

D. Oxygen atoms and hydrogen atoms have opposite charges.

slide49

Chapter 2

Standardized Test Prep

Short Response

Covalent bonding is a sharing of electrons between atoms. Why do some atoms share electrons?

slide50

Chapter 2

Standardized Test Prep

Short Response, continued

Covalent bonding is a sharing of electrons between atoms. Why do some atoms share electrons?

Answer:

Sharing electrons achieves a stable number of electrons in the orbitals that correspond to the highest energy level for each atom.

slide51

Chapter 2

Standardized Test Prep

Extended Response

Pure water contains equal numbers of hydronium ions and hydroxide ions and is therefore a neutral solution.

Part A What is the initial cause of the dissociation of water molecules into hydrogen and hydroxide ions? Explain the process.

Part B After water dissociates, hydronium ions are formed. Explain this process.

slide52

Chapter 2

Standardized Test Prep

Extended Response, continued

Answer:

Part A Water molecules collide as they move about. Some collisions result in the loss of a hydrogen nucleus. Thus, the water molecule gives rise to a hydrogen ion and a hydroxide ion.

Part B The hydrogen ion from the initial dissociation of water combines with another water molecule to form a hydronium ion.

slide56

Section 2 Energy

Chapter 2

Energy and Matter

slide57

Section 3 Water and Solutions

Chapter 2

Hydrogen Bonding