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Hot Gas and Outflows of Nearby Normal Galaxies. Q. Daniel Wang (UMass). Most of present galaxies are not nuclear starbursters Phenomena that would be otherwise overwhelmed Disk/halo interaction Bulge wind driven by Type Ia SNe Accretion from the IGM

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hot gas and outflows of nearby normal galaxies
Hot Gas and Outflows of Nearby Normal Galaxies

Q. Daniel Wang (UMass)

  • Most of present galaxies are not nuclear starbursters
  • Phenomena that would be otherwise overwhelmed
    • Disk/halo interaction
    • Bulge wind driven by Type Ia SNe
    • Accretion from the IGM

Subtle, but enduring  strongly affect the evolution of galaxies

absorption sight lines
Absorption Sight Lines

AGN

X-ray binary

Yao & Wang 2005

Wang et al. 2005

No detection

ionization fraction

OVII

OVIII

Ne IX

Ne VIII

OVI

Ne IX

Ionization fraction

Assuming CIE and solar abundances

ne ix k absorption lines in lmxb spectra
Ne IX K absorption lines in LMXB spectra

Also detection of OVII K, K,and OVIII K lines

Mean T ~ 106.3+/-0.2 K

nH~3.4x10-3 cm-3

(assuming filling factor =1)

hot gas disk model
Hot gas disk model

nH = 5.0(-1.8,+2.6)x10-3 cm-3exp[-|z|/1.2(-0.5,+0.7) kpc]

Total NH~1.6 x1019 cm-2

X-ray absorption is primarily around the Galactic disk within a few kpc!

differential x ray absorption line spectroscopy

3C 273

Mkn 421

Differential X-ray absorption line spectroscopy

LETG/HRC

LETG/ACIS

  • Depth:
  • NH =n d
  • =(3-11) x1019 cm-2
  • n2 d ~ 2x10-2 cm-6 pc
  • d ~ 5 kpc
  • Doppler broadening:
  • b=31-46 km/s
  • for Mrk 421
  • b=120 (80-204) km/s
  • for 3C 273

Wang & Yao 2005

summary galactic hot gas disk
Summary: Galactic hot gas disk
  • Vertical scale ~ 1-3 kpc
  • Mean temperature ~ 106.2 K
  • density ~ 3 x 10-3 cm-3
  • Metal abundance ~ solar
ngc 3556 optical vs x ray
NGC 3556: optical vs. X-ray

Red – optical

Green – 0.3-1.5 keV band

Blue – 1.5-7 keV band

sb galaxy ngc 4565

Wang (2004)

Red – optical

Green – 0.3-1.5 keV band

Blue – 1.5-7 keV band

Sb galaxy NGC 4565

Very low specific SFR

No sign for any outflows from the disk in radio and optical

William McLaughlin (ARGO Cooperative Observatory)

no correlation with radio
No correlation with radio!
  • Lx ~ 3 x 1039 erg/s
ngc 4594 x ray vs optical
NGC 4594: X-ray vs. optical

ACIS-S 0.3-1.5 keV intensity contours

H ring

Diffuse 0.3-1.5 keV intensity contours

ngc 4594 x ray spectra

NGC 4631

NGC 4594:X-ray spectra

Point source

disk

Outer bulge

  • Average T ~ 6 x 106 K
  • Slight softening in the disk and in the outer bulge
  • Strong Fe –L complex
  • Lx ~ 4 x 1039 erg/s

Inner bulge

missing stellar feedback in early type disk galaxies
Missing stellar feedback in early-type disk galaxies
  • For NGC 4594, hot gas radiative cooling rate ~ 2% of LSN ~ 2.4 x 1041 ergs/s from Type Ia SNe alone
  • Not much cool gas to hide or convert the SN energy
  • Mass and metals are also missing!
    • Mass input rate of evolved stars

~ 1.3 Msun/yr

    • Each Type Ia SN  0.7 Msun Fe

Gone with the wind!

bulge wind model
Bulge wind model
  • Spherical, steady, and adiabatic
  • NFW Dark matter halo + stellar bulge
  • Energy and mass input follows the stellar light distribution
  • CIE plasma emission
  • Implemented in XSPEC for both projected spectral and radial surface brightness analyses

Li & Wang 2004

data vs model
Data vs model

Consistent with the expected total mass loss and SN rates as well as the Fe abundance of ~ 4 x solar!

outflow inflow interaction
Outflow-inflow interaction

NGC 3379: ram-pressure confined galactic wind?

conclusion
Conclusion
  • At least two components of diffuse hot gas:
    • Disk – driven by massive star formation
    • Bulge – heated primarily by Type-Ia SNe
  • There is so far little evidence for X-ray emission or absorption from IGM accretion halos. But there are indications from the interaction with other gaseous components.