Sexually transmitted diseases • Sexually transmitted diseases are among the most common infections in the United States, with an estimated 15 million Americans acquiring an STD every year.
STDs can be arranged into three categories according to their causes. • Those caused by virus: HIV/AIDS, herpes simplex, hepatitis B, and genital warts. AIDS and herpes are as yet incurable. 2. Those caused by bacteria: chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and various vaginal infections, including pelvic inflammatory disease and nongonococcal urethritis. 3. Those caused by parasites: pubic lice and scabies.
Sexually Transmitted Diseases Warning: graphic slides included
AIDS • 1. HIV/AIDS is a sexually transmitted disease characterized by virtually irreversible damage to the body’s immune system and, eventually, death. • 2. An estimated 650,000 to 900,000 people are living with HIV. • 3. New treatments have slowed the progression of HIV to AIDS and AIDS to death. • 4. A blood test measures the presence of HIV antibodies in the bloodstream and should be taken at least 6 months after the last exposure to the disease.
AIDS • 5. A person exposed to the virus is infected and can transmit it to others without having come down with the disease and without knowing the virus is present. • 6. The AIDS virus is found in semen, blood, urine, vaginal secretions, saliva, tears, and breast milk and is transmitted from person to person (male and female) during the exchange of body fluids, through direct sexual contact or through use of infected needles or syringes. The virus can also pass from mother to fetus during pregnancy and through breast milk during nursing. • 7. AIDS is not transmitted through casual, nonsexual contact: through touching, holding, shaking hands, playing together, sneezing, breathing, coughing; through food or biting insects; through towels, toilet seats, eating utensils, or water fountains.
Herpes • 1. Caused by a virus that can produce cold sores or fever blisters on the mouth or face (oral herpes) and similar symptoms in the genital area (genital herpes). • 2. Lives in the body over a lifetime, often without symptoms or periodic symptoms. • 3. Genital herpes now affects more than one in five Americans over the age of 12. • 4. Herpes is most easily spread during an active outbreak or a few days before an outbreak.
Herpes • 5. Symptoms can include itching or tingling, followed by a painful eruption of blisters and sores, headache, flu-like symptoms, swollen glands in the lymph nodes, and other breaks or irregularities in the skin such as a cut, red bumps, or rash. • 6. The best way to prevent the spread of genital herpes is to avoid sex during an actual outbreak, to always use condoms between outbreaks, and to use suppressive antiviral therapy to reduce outbreaks. • 7. A woman who has genital herpes should discuss it with her heath care provider, as cancer of the cervix and vulva have been associated with genital herpes. An outbreak in late pregnancy can cause serious health problems for the newborn.
HPV • 1. Human papillomavirus (HPV) refers to a group of viruses that infect the skin. Thirty of the over 70 types are sexually transmitted and cause genital warts. • 2. Genital HPV is spread through skin-to-skin contact, not through the exchange of bodily fluids. • 3. HPV often has no symptoms. When symptoms do occur, they can include growths or bumps on the vulva, the vagina, or anus, the cervix, penis, scrotum, or groin. The warts may take months or years to appear after sex with an infected person. • 4. Electrocautery, cryocautery, diathermy, laser therapy, and surgery can be used to remove the warts. • 5. HPV puts men at risk for anal and penile cancers, and certain high-risk strains can cause cervical cancers in women.
Chlamydia • 1. Chlamydia is the most prevalent sexually transmitted disease. It is caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachmonatis. • 2. Nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) is the most common form in men. Some men have no symptoms, whereas others experience burning during urination and a pus-like discharge. Epididymitis is an inflammation of the epididymis and may cause sterility if left untreated. • 3. Chlamydial infections in women include oral, rectal, and cervical infections. If left untreated, they can cause pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). • 4. Tetracycline is used in treatment. Pregnant women can take erythromycin to cure chlamydia. • 5. Infants exposed to chlamydia when passing through the birth canal are subject to lung, eye, and ear infections. • 6. PID is a general term for infections of the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries, most often caused by untreated chlamydial or gonorrheal bacteria. Long-term consequences are chronic pain, greater risk of ectopic pregnancy, and infertility from blocked fallopian tubes.
Chronic lymphogranuloma venereum in female. Genital elephantiasis
Gonorrhea • 1. Gonorrhea is a highly contagious sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhea. • 2. It is spread by oral, genital, or anal contact when the mucous membranes of the throat, genitals, or rectum come into contact with those of an infected person. • 3. Symptoms in men include a pus-like penile discharge, blood in the urine, and burning during urination. If left untreated, it can cause chronic obstructions in the vas deferens and lead to infertility. • 4. Symptoms in women include a pus-like vaginal discharge and painful frequent urination. It can lead to PID. • 5. Treatment usually consists of a dose of antibiotics, although an antibiotic-resistant strain has been identified.