BUDAPEST UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY AND ECONOMICS
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BUDAPEST UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY AND ECONOMICS. DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESS ENGINEERING. FACULTY OF CHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING. WASTEWATERS CONTAINING PLANT NUTRIENTS. Dr. Bajnóczy Gábor Tonkó Csilla. WASTEWATERS CONTAINING PLANT NUTRIENTS.

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Dr bajn czy g bor tonk csilla

BUDAPEST UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY AND ECONOMICS

DEPARTMENT OF CHEMICAL AND

ENVIRONMENTAL PROCESS ENGINEERING

FACULTY OF CHEMICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL ENGINEERING

WASTEWATERS CONTAINING PLANT NUTRIENTS

Dr. Bajnóczy Gábor

Tonkó Csilla


Dr bajn czy g bor tonk csilla

WASTEWATERS CONTAINING PLANT NUTRIENTS

There is no one special element regulating the growth of plants

Apart from the microelements three elements regulate the plants activity

Three elements : carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus

Photosynthesis of hydrophytes:

utilize dissolved carbon-dioxide content of water

The necessary nitrogen is taken up by the hydrophytes in nitrate form.

blue algae : nitrogen from the air is consumable

CO2

NO3-

phosphorus up take :

soluble phosphates

from the erosion of soil.

PO4---


Dr bajn czy g bor tonk csilla

NUTRIENT SUPPLY OF NATURAL WATERS

TROPHITY

Trophity: capacity of organic matter production of water

trophic phosphorus content clarity nitrogen content chlorophyll content

state [μg/dm3] [cm] [μg/dm3] [μg/dm3]

oligotrophic 4 – 10 > 260 < 400 1,0 – 2,5

mezotrophic 10 – 35 160 – 260 400 – 600 2,5 – 8,0

eutrophic 35 – 100 60 – 160 600 – 1500 8,0 – 25

hipertrophic > 100 < 60 > 1500 > 25


Dr bajn czy g bor tonk csilla

Racial diversity and large number of individuals in oligotrophic waters

can not be formed due to the low nutrient content. The sludge is negligible.


Dr bajn czy g bor tonk csilla

M oligotrophic waters ezotrophic waters:

decreased transparency but better conditions foraquatic life


Dr bajn czy g bor tonk csilla

grass carp oligotrophic waters

eating fresh water

seaweed

option of eutrophication change

benthic

planktonic

eutrophic waters: possibility of diverse aquatic life

classified into two categories

a.) benthic: good clarity and presence of higher-order hydrophytes

b.) planktonic: poor transparency and dominant species: algae

Simultaneous presence of the two types is possible


Dr bajn czy g bor tonk csilla

Hypertrophic oligotrophic waters waters:

Well supplied by nutrients, very poor transparency ,hydrophyteor algae blooming is possible,

Diverse aquatic life but the system is very unstable.

Large amount of dead organic material may cause lack of oxygen.


Dr bajn czy g bor tonk csilla

EFFECT OF PLANT NUTRIENTS TO NATURAL WATERS oligotrophic waters

NATURAL WATER

excess nutrient intake

growth of aquatic plants

benthic eutrophication

alga blooming

planktonic eutrophication

more diverse wildlife,

increased number of

species

wildlife change,

decrease of oxygen claiming

species

decay of large amount of dead biomass → → reduction of water’s oxygen content


Dr bajn czy g bor tonk csilla

INHIBITION OF EXCESSIVE EUTROPHICATION oligotrophic waters

Inhibition of carbon intake

Can not be limited because of the chance of carbon dioxide uptake from air.

Inhibition of nitrogen intake

Due to nitrogen-cycle unlimited amount nitrogen is carried by rainwater in nitrate form

Rational use of fertilizers may help!

Inhibition of phosphorus intake

The only way at present to reduce the phosphorus content of waste waters.

The human activity is mainly responsible of the ≈ 70% of phosphorous content

of natural waters.


Dr bajn czy g bor tonk csilla

PHOSPHORUS-CYCLE AND REMOVAL FROM NATURAL WATERS oligotrophic waters

harvesting

adult bug fly out land

phosphorus in alga

phosphorus in fish

dissolved phosphorus

Chironomid larvae: liveing in water,

accumulates significant amount of

phosphorus

dead fish

dead alga

Fe +++ increase

increase of temperature

Ca ++ increase

increase of acidity

decrease of O2 concentration

Sludge excavation: significant decrease of dissolved oxygen


Dr bajn czy g bor tonk csilla

REDUCTION OF PHOSPHORUS LOADING oligotrophic waters

Main resources: municipal wastewater → phosphorus content from water

softeners in washing powders

Claim of environment: phosphorus-free water softener in detergents!

Phosphorus elimination of municipal wastewaters

Biological wastewater treatment: phosphorus content is reducible about 20 – 30 %.

Removal of residual phosphorus: by chemical processes precipitating in form of

iron, calcium or aluminium salts.

3 Fe 3+ + 2 PO43- + 3 H2O = (FeOH)3(PO4)2 + 2H+