The Renaissance. Birth of Venus – Botticelli, 1485. Aim : Why did the Renaissance begin in Italy ? Explain how life was during the Greek and Roman civilizations. Explain Humanism and Secularism. Who was Leonardo DaVinci and what did he contribution to Art. Before the Middle Ages, before
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Birth of Venus – Botticelli, 1485
the Plague, there was the glory
of the ancient Greeks and Romans.
of the Bubonic
the past, to the glories of early
creativity and new interest in
the contributions of the Greeks and
a great location
It was king of
in discovering new ways of thinking
It was the belief
in the importance
parts of Europe.
“It is better to be feared than loved…”
“The ends justifies the means…”
Author: Niccolo Machiavelli
Culture: Italian (another Florentine)
Time: 1513 CE
Genre: didactic prose handbook
Name to Know: Cesare Borgia
Son of a lawyer.
Received an ordinary literary education; read Latin but no Greek.
Loved Roman history; studied law.
Became a political writer & theorist.
Worked as a clerk, then secretary to the second chancery of the commune in Florence (14 years).
As secretary & Second Chancellor of Florence, in charge of internal and war affairs, he had knowledge of military & diplomatic matters; went on diplomatic missions.
After arguing against mercenaries and for a national militia, he was given the job of forming one and leading it to battle. Did so successfully(1509).
He lost his position and was exiled from Florence when the republican regime went out of power; forbidden to leave Florentine territory, he was imprisoned and tortured, accused of conspiracy by the new Medici regime.
After he was released, he retired with his wife and children, wrote The Prince, among other things. Later got into Medici good graces (1520s). Died in 1527.
Machiavelli’s life changed drastically when the Medici family took power in Florence.
How does he react to this?
Compare with how Abelard and Dante dealt with the unforeseen events in their lives (castration, exile).
How would Marie de France judge their reactions to unexpected change, the test of unforeseen events ?
An historian summed Machiavelli up thus:
‘Diplomat, historian, dramatist, philosopher; the most cynical thinker of his time, and yet a patriot fired with a noble ideal; a man who failed in everything he undertook, but left upon history a deeper mark than almost any other figure of the Renaissance.’ [Durant]
[individuals are simply members of states]
A manual teaching how to get and keep political power. The author assumes a pedagogical persona, seeks to persuade readers.
The work is powerful for:
rhetorical & technical brilliance
Among the most frequently reprinted books in any language.
Dedicated first to Giuliano de’ Medici, then to Lorenzo, his nephew.
Author’s premise: human nature is evil;
human nature remains constant over time.
Author’s goal: to liberate Italy from both internal warring and foreign oppression.
Machiavelli admired Cesare Borgia, son of Pope Alexander VI, makes him an embodied will to power, a model for supermen, beyond good and evil.
Therefore, the consumption of art was used as a form of competition for social & political status!
First use of linear perspective!
What you are, I once was; what I am, you will become.
Betrothal of the Virgin
The “Classical Pose”Medici “Venus” (1c)
Florentine lion:symbol of St. Mark
The Wool Factoryby Mirabello Cavalori, 1570
1252 – first gold florins minted
Cosimo de Medici
1478 - 1521
1517 - 1574
The Medici Palace
Il Duomo St. Peter’s St. Paul’s US capital (Florence) (Rome) (London) (Washington)
1452 - 1519
A Macaroni Mona
Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie
Leonardo, the Scientist (Anatomy): Pages from his Notebook
Leonardo, the Engineer: Pages from his Notebook
Studies of water-lifting devices.
A study of siege defenses.
O investigator, do not flatter yourself that you know the things nature performs for herself, but rejoice in knowing that purpose of those things designed by your own mind.
The Creation of the Heavens
Creation of Man
The Fall from Grace
The Last Judgment
Plato:looks to theheavens [or the IDEALrealm].
Aristotle:looks to thisearth [thehere andnow].