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The Renaissance. Birth of Venus – Botticelli, 1485. Aim : Why did the Renaissance begin in Italy ? Explain how life was during the Greek and Roman civilizations. Explain Humanism and Secularism. Who was Leonardo DaVinci and what did he contribution to Art. Before the Middle Ages, before

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slide1

The Renaissance

Birth of Venus – Botticelli, 1485

slide2

Aim: Why did the Renaissance begin in Italy?

  • Explain how life was during the Greek and Roman civilizations.
  • Explain Humanism and Secularism.
  • Who was Leonardo DaVinci and what did he contribution to Art
slide3

Before the Middle Ages, before

the Plague, there was the glory

of the ancient Greeks and Romans.

slide4

After the damage

of the Bubonic

Plague,

Western

European

society

changed.

slide5

In Italy, people began to look to

the past, to the glories of early

civilizations.

the dark ages
The “Dark Ages”
  • Renaissance thinkers referred to the Middle Ages as the “Dark Ages”.
  • They believed that the “light of learning” had gone out in Europe at the fall of Rome.
  • Renaissance thinkers wanted to rediscover the ancient Greeks and Romans.
slide7

What a piece

of work

is man!

slide8

In Italy, a new period of artistic

creativity and new interest in

the contributions of the Greeks and

Romans developed.

slide9

It was a

rebirth.

It was

the

Renaissance.

slide11

And why did the

Renaissance begin

in Italy?

Italy had

a great location

for trade.

It was king of

the Mediterranean

Sea.

It controlled

European trade

with Asia.

slide12

Renaissance thinkers were interested

in discovering new ways of thinking

and seeing.

slide13

During the

Renaissance,

humanism

became popular.

It was the belief

in the importance

and uniqueness

of man.

secularism
Secularism
  • During the Renaissance, secularism became popular.
  • Secularism is a non-religious viewpoint.
  • Secularists look to scientific thinking for answers as opposed to religion.
humanism
Humanism
  • During the Renaissance, humanism became popular.
  • Humanism is the belief that human actions, ideas, and works are important.
  • Humanists rediscovered the ancient Greeks and Romans.
the renaissance
The Renaissance
  • The Renaissance was a period of artistic creativity.
  • Artists rediscovered the ancient civilizations of the Greeks and Romans.
  • The word “Renaissance” means rebirth.
humanism1
Humanism
  • • Celebrated the individual
  • • Stimulated the study of classical Greek and Roman literature and culture
  • • Supported by wealthy patrons
slide18

Wealth from

trade allowed

artists to

find wealthy

patrons to

commission

and sponsor

their work.

slide19

The rebirth

and rediscovery

of learning

of the

Renaissance

soon spread

to other

parts of Europe.

medici family1
Medici Family
  • They were a family of bankers that became very wealthy and powerful.
  • Soon they were involved in politics and ran the City of Florence.
  • They were patrons of the Arts and commissioned many works of art.
gutenberg bible
Gutenberg Bible
  • Gutenburg Printing Press
  • Movable Type
machiavelli s the prince
Machiavelli’s The Prince
  • • An early modern treatise on government
  • • Supports absolute power of the ruler
  • • Maintains that the end justifies the means
  • • Advises that one should not only do good if possible, but do evil when necessary
ideas of machiavelli
Ideas of Machiavelli

“It is better to be feared than loved…”

“The ends justifies the means…”

the prince
The Prince

Author: Niccolo Machiavelli

Culture: Italian (another Florentine)

Time: 1513 CE

Genre: didactic prose handbook

Name to Know: Cesare Borgia

background
Background

Son of a lawyer.

Received an ordinary literary education; read Latin but no Greek.

Loved Roman history; studied law.

Became a political writer & theorist.

Worked as a clerk, then secretary to the second chancery of the commune in Florence (14 years).

practical experience
Practical Experience

As secretary & Second Chancellor of Florence, in charge of internal and war affairs, he had knowledge of military & diplomatic matters; went on diplomatic missions.

After arguing against mercenaries and for a national militia, he was given the job of forming one and leading it to battle. Did so successfully(1509).

another florentine exile
Another Florentine Exile . . .

He lost his position and was exiled from Florence when the republican regime went out of power; forbidden to leave Florentine territory, he was imprisoned and tortured, accused of conspiracy by the new Medici regime.

After he was released, he retired with his wife and children, wrote The Prince, among other things. Later got into Medici good graces (1520s). Died in 1527.

reaction to change
Reaction to Change

Machiavelli’s life changed drastically when the Medici family took power in Florence.

How does he react to this?

Compare with how Abelard and Dante dealt with the unforeseen events in their lives (castration, exile).

How would Marie de France judge their reactions to unexpected change, the test of unforeseen events ?

his importance
His Importance

An historian summed Machiavelli up thus:

‘Diplomat, historian, dramatist, philosopher; the most cynical thinker of his time, and yet a patriot fired with a noble ideal; a man who failed in everything he undertook, but left upon history a deeper mark than almost any other figure of the Renaissance.’ [Durant]

slide38
Machiavelli was an independent and fearless thinker about ethics and politics:
  • interested in states, not individuals

[individuals are simply members of states]

  • wants to know why states rise & fall
  • wants to know how to delay state decay
the prince1
The Prince

A manual teaching how to get and keep political power. The author assumes a pedagogical persona, seeks to persuade readers.

The work is powerful for:

subject matter

rhetorical & technical brilliance

Among the most frequently reprinted books in any language.

Dedicated first to Giuliano de’ Medici, then to Lorenzo, his nephew.

slide40
The presentation of an ideal character is a Renaissance tendency.

Author’s premise: human nature is evil;

human nature remains constant over time.

Author’s goal: to liberate Italy from both internal warring and foreign oppression.

the prince almost
The Prince, Almost

Machiavelli admired Cesare Borgia, son of Pope Alexander VI, makes him an embodied will to power, a model for supermen, beyond good and evil.

borgia s accomplishments
Borgia’s Accomplishments
  • Destroyed his disloyal generals, having first made their supporters his own.
  • Put Remirro de Orco in charge of Romagna. He pacified the province and united it (the bad guy); Borgia then instituted civil courts (good guy).
  • Had Remirro killed and displayed in public square. “The ferocity of this spectacle left those people at the same time gratified and awe-struck.”
slide44

The Art

of the

Italian Renaissance

art and patronage
Art and Patronage
  • Italians were willing to spend a lot of money on art.
    • Art communicated social, political, and spiritual values.
    • Italian banking & international trade interests had the money.
  • Public art in Florence was organized and supported by guilds.

Therefore, the consumption of art was used as a form of competition for social & political status!

slide46

Charateristics

of

Renaissance Art

slide47

1. Realism & Expression

  • Expulsion fromthe Garden
  • Masaccio
  • 1427
  • First nudes sinceclassical times.
slide48

2. Perspective

  • The Trinity
  • Masaccio
  • 1427

Perspective!

Perspective!

Perspective!

Perspective!

Perspective!

Perspective!

Perspective!

First use of linear perspective!

What you are, I once was; what I am, you will become.

slide50

Perspective!

Betrothal of the Virgin

Raphael

1504

slide51

3. Classicism

  • Greco-Roman influence.
  • Secularism.
  • Humanism.
  • Individualism  free standing figures.
  • Symmetry/Balance

The “Classical Pose”Medici “Venus” (1c)

slide52

4. Emphasis on Individualism

  • Batista Sforza & Federico de Montefeltre: The Duke & Dutchess of Urbino
  • Piero della Francesca, 1465-1466.
slide53

Isabella d’Este – da Vinci, 1499

  • 1474-1539
  • “First Lady of the Italian Renaissance.”
  • Great patroness of the arts.
  • Known during her time as “First Lady of the World!”
slide54

5. Geometrical Arrangement of Figures

  • The Dreyfus Madonna with the Pomegranate
  • Leonardo da Vinci
  • 1469
  • The figure as architecture!
slide56

7. Artists as Personalities/Celebrities

  • Lives of the Most Excellent Painters, Sculptors, andArchitects
  • Giorgio Vasari
  • 1550
slide58

Renaissance Florence

Florentine lion:symbol of St. Mark

The Wool Factoryby Mirabello Cavalori, 1570

1252 – first gold florins minted

slide59

Lorenzo the Magnificent

Cosimo de Medici

1478 - 1521

1517 - 1574

slide60

Florence Under the Medici

Medici Chapel

The Medici Palace

slide61

Filippo Brunelleschi1377 - 1436

  • Architect
  • Cuppolo of St. Mariadel Fiore
filippo brunelleschi
Filippo Brunelleschi
  • Commissioned to build the cathedral dome.
    • Used unique architectural concepts.
      • He studied the ancient Pantheon in Rome.
      • Used ribs for support.
slide66

Other Famous Domes

Il Duomo St. Peter’s St. Paul’s US capital (Florence) (Rome) (London) (Washington)

slide70

The Liberation of Sculpture

  • David by Donatello
  • 1430
  • First free-form bronze since Roman times!
slide72

The

Renaissance

'Individual'

slide73

Vitruvian Man

  • Leonardo daVinci
  • 1492

TheL’uomouniversale

slide74

The Renaissance “Man”

  • Broad knowledge about many things in different fields.
  • Deep knowledge/skill in one area.
  • Able to link information from different areas/disciplines and create new knowledge.
  • The Greek ideal of the “well-rounded man” was at the heart of Renaissance education.
slide75

1. Self-Portrait -- da Vinci, 1512

  • Artist
  • Sculptor
  • Architect
  • Scientist
  • Engineer
  • Inventor

1452 - 1519

slide84

Refractory

Convent of Santa Maria delle Grazie

Milan

slide85

The Last Supper - da Vinci, 1498

vertical

horizontal

Perspective!

slide86

Deterioration

  • Detail of Jesus
  • The Last Supper
  • Leonardo da Vinci
  • 1498
slide88

Leonardo, the Sculptor

  • An Equestrian Statue
  • 1516-1518
slide90

Leonardo, the Architect:Pages from his Notebook

  • Plan of the city of Imola, 1502.
slide91

Leonardo, the Scientist (Biology):Pages from his Notebook

  • An example of the humanist desire to unlock the secrets of nature.
slide95

Leonardo, the Engineer: Pages from his Notebook

Studies of water-lifting devices.

A study of siege defenses.

slide96

Leonardo da Vinci….

O investigator, do not flatter yourself that you know the things nature performs for herself, but rejoice in knowing that purpose of those things designed by your own mind.

slide98

2. Michelangelo Buonorrati

  • 1475 – 1564
  • He represented the body in three dimensions of sculpture.
slide99

David

  • MichelangeloBuonarotti
  • 1504
  • Marble
slide100

 15c

Whatadifferenceacenturymakes!

16c 

slide101

The Popes as Patrons of the Arts

  • The Pieta
  • MichelangeloBuonarroti
  • 1499
  • marble
slide104

The Sistine Chapel Details

The Creation of the Heavens

slide106

The Sistine Chapel Details

The Fall from Grace

slide108

The School of Athens – Raphael, 1510 -11

  • One point perspective.
  • All of the important Greek philosophers and thinkers are included  all of the great personalities of the Seven Liberal Arts!
  • A great variety of poses.
  • Located in the papal apartments library.
  • Raphael worked on this commission simultaneously as Michelangelo was doing the Sistine Chapel.
  • No Christian themes here.
slide110

The School of Athens – Raphael, details

Plato:looks to theheavens [or the IDEALrealm].

Aristotle:looks to thisearth [thehere andnow].

slide111

Averroes

Hypatia

Pythagoras

slide112

Zoroaster

Ptolemy

Euclid

slide113

A Portrait of Savonarola

  • By Fra Bartolomeo, 1498.
  • Dominican friar who decried money and power.
  • Anti-humanist he saw humanism as too secular, hedonistic, and corrupting.
  • The “Bonfire of the Vanities,” 1497.
    • Burned books, artwork, jewelry, and other luxury goods in public.
    • Even Botticelli put some of his paintings on the fire!!