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Status of the JET device and planning of Task Force H in upcoming JET campaigns. J.Ongena, Seminar Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Princeton, New Jersey, USA 27 July 2005. JET has World Wide Unique and Unmatched Capabilities. Burning plasma capability (D-T fuel of ITER, a -simulation)

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Status of the JET device and planning of Task Force H in upcoming JET campaigns


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    1. Status of the JET device and planning of Task Force H in upcoming JET campaigns J.Ongena, Seminar Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Princeton, New Jersey, USA 27 July 2005 J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    2. JET has World Wide Unique and Unmatched Capabilities • Burning plasma capability(D-T fuel of ITER, a-simulation) • Size: the closest to ITER, the most relevant physics for consolidating ITER modes of operation (regimes on smaller tokamaks do not always extrapolate to JET) • Unique technical capabilities: Beryllium - ITER First Wall material; Tritium plant; Remote handling; Real Time Control systems; Diagnostics for burning plasmas • Scientific exploitation and enhancements under fully collaborative scheme with cross-laboratory integration of scientists, engineers, project managers and administration within a contractual/financial framework J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    3. 2. Critical issues for ITER (potentially impacting detailed design of ITER components, e.g. first wall, heating & current drive systems, diagnostics..) • Design tolerable ELMs • Characterise ELM behaviour and edge pedestal in ELMy H-mode • Characterise discharges in preparation for change of wall/divertor materials • Characterise disruptions • Measure tritium retention and migration • Establish level of off-axis current with off-axis NBI and/or MC-ICRH) and quantify degree of rotation achieved with low momentum input • Exploit fully the LH system • Quantify physics governing rotational stabilisation of RWMs • Control core MHD (fishbones) typical of hybrid regimes EFDA-JET Workprogrammes 2005/06:Basis for the Scientific Programme 1. Bring new systems to full performance(divertor, diagnostics, LH launcher and 3dB couplers in early 2006; ITER-like ICRH antenna and conjugate-T after 2006 shutdown) • High-level commissioning of theITER-likeICRH antenna • Commissioning of the MkII HD divertor • Commissioning of new/upgraded diagnostics and systems • High-level commissioning of theICRH system (3dB couplers and conjugate-T) to full power • High-level commissioning of theLH system to full power J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    4. 4. Specific physics issues of direct relevance to ITER (exploiting unique features of JET) 3. Preparation of ITER operating scenarios • Determine transport physics implications for ITER • Extend ELMy H-mode operation at high triangularity to high current • Explore new burning plasma physics • Extend scaling of ELMy H-mode confinement at low d to lowest r*, ne* and highest b • Develop a robust steady-state non-inductive scenario with acceptable edge / confinement making full use of real-time control • Demonstrate portability, fuelling and b limits of the hybrid scenario • Begin to establish reference scenarios ahead of the proposed change of wall/divertor materials EFDA-JET Workprogrammes 2005/06:Basis for the Scientific Programme J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    5. Timetable 2005-2006 • Shutdown, Restart and High Level Commissioning 2004/05 • Shutdown: started 6 March 2004 • Pump-down: performed on 7 July 2005 • Restart: first plasma expected beginning September 2005 • High Level Commissioning (Restart Contingency): 7 November 2005 (for 2 weeks) • Experimental Programme Schedule end 2005 / 2006 / early 2007 • Campaigns C15, C16 and C17 - 21 November to 16 December 2005(18 S/T days, plus 2 days maintenance) • - 9 January to 10 March 2006 (42 S/T days, plus 3 days maintenance) • - 13 March to 12 April 2006 (20 S/T days, plus 3 days maintenance) OR • - 21 August to 18 September 2006 (16 S/T days, plus 3 days maintenance) J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    6. Task Force Leaders/Deputies & CSU ROs TF S1: Consolidation of ITER database and reference scenarios A. Sips (IPP, Garching); R. Buttery (UKAEA, Culham); T. Loarer (CEA, Cadarache); &D.Frigione TF S2: ITER Advanced Scenarios X.Litaudon (CEA, Cadarache); C. Challis (UKAEA, Culham); F.Crisanti (ENEA, Frascati); & D.Moreau TF M: MHD S.Pinches (IPP, Garching); R. Koslowski (FZJ, Jülich); & S.Arshad TF H: Heating J. Ongena (ERM/KMS, Brussels); J. Mailloux (UKAEA, Culham); & D. Moreau TF E: Exhaust R.Pitts(CRPP-EPFL,Lausanne); W.Fundamenski(UKAEA,Culham); V.Philipps(FZJ,Jülich); & B.Goncalves TF D: Diagnostics A.Murari(RFX,Padova);J.Brzozowski(VR, Sweden);E.delaLuna(CIEMAT,Madrid);R.Pasqualotto B.Goncalves TF T: Transport P. Mantica (ENEA, Milano); P. Strand (VR, Sweden); V. Naulin (Riso, Denmark); & H. Nordman TF FT: Fusion Technology C. Grisolia (CEA, Cadarache); P. Coad (UKAEA); & G. Piazza, S.Rosanvallon TF DT: Deuterium-Tritium Operation K-D. Zastrow (UKAEA, Culham); & M. L. Watkins J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    7. Significant Upgrade of JET Scientific Capabilities in 2005-2006 • End 2005 • MkII-HD divertor (high triangularity, high power operation) • 3 dB couplers for ELM resilience on 2 of the 4 existing ICRH A2 antennas • Improved Neutral Beam neutralisers (+ 1.5 - 2 MW) • 14 (+2) new or upgraded diagnostics / systems • Disruption mitigation valve • End 2006 • ITER-like ICRH antenna • External conjugate-T for ELM resilience on remaining ICRH A2 antennas • LHCD control electronic refurbishment • Smaller diagnostics J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    8. Reliable Power into H/L JET ICRF System 2004 4/8 A 1/2 B 1/2 C 1/2 D 1/2 J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    9. Reliable Power into H/L JET ICRF System : 2005/2006 end 2006/2007 : 11/15.2 2005 : 5/8 2005 A 3/4 3dB couplers B end 2006/begin 2007 JET-EP 6/7.2 end 2006 C 1/2 conjugate T D 1/2 J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    10. 1.7MW With Septum <1.4MW No Septum BEAM • Introduction of septum to improve neutralization • Further increase power output per source (+0.3MW) More NB power with Septum Neutraliser All 8 PINIS of Oct 8 and PINI1 of Oct 4 will be equipped with the septum neutralizer in 2005 J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    11. NBI - Forecast for 2005 NBI power to Torus ==> NBI Power in 2005 :25MW max (~30-50% rel.), 23.5MW(~60-70% rel.) 20.5MW (90% rel.) all PINIs 1 PINI out 3 PINIs out J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    12. LHCD - 2005 Power Forecast • With 24 klystrons available : • Reach 5MW/5s and 4MW/15s on L-mode plasma. • so that 3.0MW/15s is available reliably for Task Force experiments (with good coupling). • From ~ end november 2005 only 21 klystrons will be available (in view of future refurbishment) : only 2.5MW/15s will be available. • Special restart tasks to improve LH operation: • Specific tests to assess consequences of grill damage. • High power commissioning of launcher on H-mode plasma (as opposed to L-mode only). • Radiation protection needs to be re-commissioned following commissioning of new bolometer camera. J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    13. ITER shape High d Plasma Load Bearing Septum Replacement tiles: Increased power handling High Field Side Gap Closure tiles: protect divertor diagnostic cables Power handling with ITER-like plasma shapes: modified divertor (MkII-HD) installed • Handle up to 40MW power for 10s with strike point sweeping • More flexibility for ITER matched triangularity plasmas (dU~0.44, dL~0.56) at higher Ip(3.5-4MA) • Refurbishment of divertor diagnostics • Operation in 2005 J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    14. High Resolution Thomson Scattering • Objective : measure Te and ne at high resolution (ITB plasmas, plasma edge) • Main Characteristics : • 60 points for R=3.0-3.9m • 1.5cm resolution • 20 Hz repetition rate • predicted accuracy of 15% at ne=1.0x1019m-3 J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    15. Core Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy • Objective : full radial profile of impurity density, Ti and toroidal rotation • Main Characteristics : • Time resolution : from 5 to 10ms • Radial resolution : ~ 6cm (40 points in R=2.7-3.7m) J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    16. Halo Current Sensors • Objective : measurement of value, current density, toroidal and poloidal distribution and nature of Halo Currents (asymmetries, filaments, correlation with kink instabilities,...) • 4 sets of probe arrays at interoctant positions Oct 1-2, 3-4, 5-6, 7-8 • Main Characteristics : • 5kHz analog bandwidth • 12dB S/N ratio J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    17. Wide View Infrared camera • Objective : temperature distribution of first wall (ELMs, disruptions), survery of ICRH antenna • Main Characteristics : • Full poloidal cross-section, centred on ICRH antenna • 5-10ms time resolution • 10-20mm spatial resolution J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    18. Content of Talk • JET Operations End 2005/Early 2006 • JET Operational ScheduleExperimental Planning for Task Force HeatingJET Upgrades available End 2005/Early 2006 • JET Upgrades planned for End 2006 • High Power Prototype ITER like antenna • Long Term Plans for JET • Beryllium WallMore Heating PowerImproved Pellet Capability J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    19. Main aim of Task Force H in 2005-2006 • Make progress in issues specifically for ITER • Study of coupling of LH/ICRH under ITER relevant conditions and scenarios • Understanding off-axis NBI current drive • Optimise Heating/Current Drive scheme (including coupling) for use by other Task Forces : Mode conversion, Fast wave coupling schemes, Minimize interaction of LH and ICRH at JET,... • Physics topics : rotation studies with ICRH, Fast particle studies • Maximise LH and ICRH coupled power at JET (including: understand reasons for operational limits and explore solutions to push these limits) J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    20. ICRH coupling to ELMy plasma improved with conjugate-T matching scheme Conjugate T matching Low Power (200kW) Tests Succesfull - dec 2003; High Power with ICRH High Power Prototype (7.2MW design) - end 2006/2007 J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    21. Antenna straps Antenna Prototype tests ~40kV Capacitors ~5-6 kV R.Goulding, ORNL ELM Resilient ITER-like ICRH antenna under construction (operation end 2006/2007) • ELM resilient Conjugate-T antenna with Internal Matching • High Power Density • ~7MW additional power • Challenging Project: • Voltage Stand-Off in Capacitors • (High) Precision C tuning for Matching • Forces during disruptions Key demonstration in preparation of ITER antennas J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    22. Content of Talk • JET Operations End 2005/Early 2006 • JET Operational ScheduleExperimental Planning for Task Force HeatingJET Upgrades available End 2005/Early 2006 • JET Upgrades planned for End 2006 • High Power Prototype ITER like antenna • Long Term Plans for JET • Beryllium WallMore Heating PowerImproved Pellet Capability J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    23. Until ITER starts: JET still has significant technical capabilities which can be used to prepare for ITER operation On short-term (2005/2006), JET’s scientific capabilities are being extended, with construction of: “ ITER-like ” antenna and new plasma diagnostics JET’s key components (vacuum vessel, magnets) have not been used for more than 15% of their fatigue lifetime, although regular maintenance is needed on auxiliaries On longer term (2007-2010), JET can be used: • to develop further operating scenarios inconditions closest to those of ITER; • to optimise more ITER auxiliaries Requires “ITER-like” wall conditions andincreased heating power J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    24. Decide as late as possible (2007) Planned “ITER-like” wall experiment on JETOnly JET can prepare ITER operation with the relevant materials combinationPreparation of ITER plasma operation in world-wide unique conditions J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    25. ITER like wall project for JET Key Objectives • Material erosion and migration with relevant mix of materials • Tritium inventory control • Wall lifetime • Study of damage due to transients (ELMs and disruptions) e.g. melt layer loss studies • control / mitigation techniques Limit disruption / ELM damage • Reference Option (all-W divertor): Operate without C - radiation • Option with C targets: Test de-tritiation techniques • An essential stepping stone to ITER Demonstrate routine / safe operation of fully integrated ITER compatible scenarios at 3-5MA  power upgrade (40-45 MW overall power)to operate at high performance and high densities J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    26. ELM melt damage - Be target ELM effects on the W ( or C) divertor in JET 1-2MJ ELMs required to study melt layer effects on W target achievable with 10-20MJ stored energy 1MJ ELMs in JET  wall loading 10 – 40 MJm-2s-1/2 divertor Be-melting (~ 16 MJm-2s-1/2) divertor C-ablation (~ 35 MJm-2s-1/2) J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    27. Required for ELM control Required for deep fuelling Required for ELM control Required for deep fuelling Fuel D2 D2, impurities (+DT/T2 later?) D2 D2, DT, T2, impurities Number of pellets / pulse unlimited unlimited unlimited unlimited Maximum frequency 10-60 Hz adjustable 1 - 15 Hz adjustable 16 Hz 16 Hz Pellet speed at injector exit 50-200 m/s adjustable (LFS) 150-600 m/s adjustable (HFS) 300 - 500 m/s (LFS) 300 - 500 m/s (HFS) Pellet size 1 - 2 mm3 adjustable 35 - 65 mm3 adjustable 33 ± 20 mm3 17 ± 20 mm3 92 ± 20 mm3 50 ± 20 mm3 Reliability >98% >98% >98% >98% Planned Upgraded Pellet Injection :High Frequency Pellet Injector Project (PELIN, St.Petersburg) Objective: ELM control & deep fuelling JET ITER JET needs are close to ITER needs Encouraging results obtained on TS (10 Hz) and on JT60-U (50 Hz) with a screw extruder system J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    28. Planned increase of Neutral Beam Power 40s 30s 20s 10s 0 2005 0 10 20 30 40MW Changing the magnetic structure of the ion sources from present supercusp to pure chequerboard configuration and modifying the PINI accelerator: - Increase of the extracted molecular ion fractions (D2+, D3+)  higher neutralisation efficiency  higher E/2 and E/3 neutral beam fractions. - Increase of the ion source plasma uniformity  lower average beam divergence  better beam optics higher transmission; - Increase of the extraction aperturesdiameter and reduction of the accelerator gapbeam current increase (60A65A). J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    29. n*, r* range / other large tokamaks RECENT JET RESULTS FUTURE : 2006/2007 JET Operation High bN 4.5-5 MA 40 MW closer to ITER n* and r* normalised to ITER More power will bring JET plasmas even closer to ITER Example: ITER ELMy H-Mode data base J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    30. Need more power at JET for AT scenarios 40-45 MW heating power will allow highly ITER relevant studies of plasma regimese.g. High density bootstrap-dominated advanced regime in steady regimes pa~5MW Full lines: n ~ nGW at q95 ~5 and bN up to 3 (ITER Relevant domain) Dotted lines: n < nGW 2009-2010 pa~1.0MW 2005-2006 • simultaneous increase of Iboot/IP and nTt • high nedge for metallic wall compatibility 2003-2004 J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    31. Conclusion Proposed JET Programme in Support of ITER 2005-2007 Strong focus on preparing ITER detailed design and ITER exploitation, including the commissioning and initial operation of an ITER-like ICRH antenna and preparationfor proposed changes of wall/divertor materials and increased heating power • Installation & exploitation of JET-EP enhancements, including diagnostics 2008 Shutdown Installation of major new capabilities • “ITER-like” wall • NB power upgrade • High frequency pellet injector • Diagnostics • Other small enhancements (tbd) EFDA Steering Committee approved first three Experimentation in 2009-2010 J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    32. Appendix 1 : Summary of design characteristics of new diagnostics at JET • The next pages contain a concise summary of the design charactaristics of the various new diagnostics in JET. Latest information on their actual implementation on JET and on the date of availability can be found on the Task Force D website in JET: • http://users.jet.efda.org/pages/d-task-force/index.html, • under topic : latest on 2005 JET enhancements J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    33. KB5 - Bolometer cameras J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    34. KB3 Bolometer cameras in divertor J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    35. old Oct 8 Oct 4 KS7 - edge CXRS J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    36. old • KS5 - Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    37. KL5 - Wide angle Infrared View (IRV) J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    38. KA2 Lost alpha diagnostics (LAP): Faraday Cups J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    39. KA3 - Lost alpha diagnostics (LAP): Scintillator probe J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    40. KM9 - Magnetic proton recoil spectrometer (MPRu) J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    41. KM11 - Time of flight for optimised rate (TOFOR) J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    42. KC1 - Magnetics J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    43. KC1H - Halo current sensors J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    44. KC1T - Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes antennas (TAE) J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    45. Microwave access (MWA) J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    46. KK5 - • Michelson Electron • Cyclotron Emission • Oblique ECE J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    47. Fast ADC’s (incl. KC1M, KC1N) J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    48. Tritium retention studies (incl. KV6 - QMBs) J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    49. Appendix 2 : Details of Task Force H sessions in 2005/2006 • The next pages contain a concise summary of the sessions planned/merged or postponed for Task Force H. More information can be found on the Task Force H webpage at JET. J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004

    50. Experiments planned for High Level Commissioning Campaign J.Ongena -- Status of the JET device in upcoming experimental campaingns PPPL, 27 July 2004