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CIVIL WAR. North and South Divided. Events Preceding Civil War. Northwest Ordinance (1787) – Prohibited slavery in the Northwest Territory 1808 – International Slave Trade banned Missouri Compromise (1820) Engineered by Henry Clay Senate tied with 11 slave and 11 free states

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civil war


North and South Divided

events preceding civil war
Events Preceding Civil War
  • Northwest Ordinance (1787) – Prohibited slavery in the Northwest Territory
  • 1808 – International Slave Trade banned
  • Missouri Compromise (1820)
    • Engineered by Henry Clay
    • Senate tied with 11 slave and 11 free states
    • Missouri would be admitted as a slave state
    • Maine would be admitted as a free state
    • Slavery would be prohibited above the 36º 30’ line (north)

Nullification Crisis (1832-33)

    • Tariffs favored Northern manufacturers and hurt Southern planters
    • “Nullification” created by John Calhoun (states could abolish or nullify federal laws)
    • South Carolina threatens secession
    • Compromise tariff drafted by Henry Clay
  • Wilmot Proviso (1847) – plan that would prohibit slavery in the territory gained from Mexico (southwest ordinance)
bell ringer
Bell Ringer

Who was known as the Great Compromiser?

What is another word for nullify?

What does it mean to secede?

Why did the South hate tariffs?

How many slave states and free states were there after the Missouri Compromise?

What is abolition?

compromise of 1850
Compromise of 1850

Created by Henry Clay (with the help of Stephen Douglas)

California admitted as a free state

Western territories organized without mention of slavery

Abolished slave trade in Washington D.C.

More effective fugitive slave laws established


Underground Railroad (1830-1860)

    • Led by Harriet Tubman
    • System of houses (“stations”) and secret routes to help slaves escape
  • Abolition Movement – groups in the North opposing slavery
  • Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852)
    • Book by Harriet Beecher Stowe
    • Contained stories she had heard from runaway slaves
    • Convinced many Northerners of the evil of slavery

Popular sovereignty – allowed citizens of a state to decide whether or not it would allow slavery

  • Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854)
    • Repealed the Missouri Compromise
    • Allowed both territories to use “popular sovereignty”
    • “Bleeding Kansas” – wars fought in Kansas between pro-slavery and anti-slavery groups
    • Created by Stephen Douglas
bell ringer1
Bell Ringer

Who won the election of 1848?

Who won the election of 1852?

In what year was the Wilmot Proviso?

Name to two different groups of Whigs.

What was a “fire eater?”

What was a “doughface?”


Republican Party formed (1854)

    • Platform: Stop the spread of slavery
  • Dred Scott Decision (1857)
    • Dred Scott v. Sanford
    • Slave named Dred Scott claimed freedom because his owner took him to a free state
    • Court ruled that slaves were “property”
    • Constitution and citizenship did not apply to slaves and free blacks
    • Congress had no right to restrict slavery from territories (UNCONSTITUTIONAL)
lincoln douglas debates 1858
Lincoln-Douglas Debates (1858)

Abe Lincoln vs. Stephen Douglas

  • Both running for U.S. Senator from Illinois
  • Debates based on slavery
  • Douglas (Democrat) argued for popular sovereignty
  • Lincoln (Republican) argued against expanding slavery
  • Douglas wins election
  • Lincoln: “A house divided against itself cannot stand.”
  • Freeport Doctrine – (Stephen Douglas)
    • stated that “free” states could still discourage slavery by refusing to pass laws that protect slavery

John Brown’s Raid (1859)

    • Brown and his followers try to start slave revolution (Harper’s Ferry, VA)
    • Brown was quickly tried and hanged
election of 1860
Election of 1860
  • Stephen Douglas (Northern Democrat) – favored popular sovereignty
  • John Breckenridge (Southern Democrat) – favored Dred Scott Decision
  • John Bell (Constitutional Union Party) – goal was to keep Union together
  • Abraham Lincoln (Republican) – stop the expansion of slavery
  • Lincoln wins
  • December 1860 – South Carolina secedes (withdraws)
  • By February 1861, seven states are seceding

February 4, 1861 – “Confederate States of America” is established

    • Jefferson Davis chosen as President
  • April 12, 1861 – Confederates bombard Ft. Sumter, SC; Civil War begins
  • CONFEDERATE STATES – South Carolina, Florida, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Texas, Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina
  • BORDER STATES – (Slave states still in the Union) Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri and later, West Virginia (broke from Virginia, June 1861; became a state June 1863)