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GUANFACINE: Changing the face of ADHD treatment? PowerPoint Presentation
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GUANFACINE: Changing the face of ADHD treatment?

GUANFACINE: Changing the face of ADHD treatment?

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GUANFACINE: Changing the face of ADHD treatment?

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  1. GUANFACINE:Changing the face of ADHD treatment? Katelyn Halpape, BSP, ACPR Doctor of Pharmacy Student Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences University of British Columbia Katelyn.halpapae@alumni.ubc.ca

  2. ADHD • Neuropsychiatric disorder • Affects 5-12% of Canadian children aged 6-17 • 8-10% of males • 3-4% of females • Hallmark symptoms: inattention, impulsivity, hyperactivity • Sequelae: • Academic impairment • Dysfunction with familyand peer relationships •  rate of injuries •  self esteem • Often co-exists with: mood & tic disorders, learning disabilities American Psychiatric Association 2000, PediatrClin North Am 2003;50: 1019-1048, Am J Psychiatry 1991;148: 564-57, Dipiro 2008, CADDRA 2012

  3. Pharmacotherapy • Psychostimulants • 1st line treatment • ~70% of patients have clinically significant response • Effectiveness limited by ADE & tolerability issues • Social stigmatization • Drug diversion • Emergence or exacerbation of tics •  Appetite • Insomnia • Delayed growth • Cardiovascular concerns • Psychosis • Seizure threshold J Child Adol Psych 2013;23(5):208-219 CADDRA (accessed Oct 2013)

  4. ADHD Goals of Therapy • Eliminate or significantly  core ADHD symptoms • Behavioural & academic performance • Self-esteem & social functioning •  Adverse effects of drug therapy •  Morbidity and mortality • Educate patient and caregiver • Support long term adherence

  5. Guanfacine: A familiar face? • Health Canada NOC July 2013 • Previously SAP • Originally used as centrally active antihypertensive • Selective α2A- adrenergic receptor agonist • blood flow to the prefrontal cortex •  working memory, executive function, impulse control • Compared to clonidine: • Less sedation and hypotension • More favourable PK profile: longer t1/2 and larger Vd • Approved for ADHD treatment in children aged 6 to 12: • Monotherapy • Adjunctive therapy to psychostimulants Health Canada Drug Product Database- accessed Oct 2013, J Child Adol Psych 2013;23(5):208-219, Drugs 1986; 301-336

  6. Guanfacine MOA Arnsten Lab. 2007

  7. Clinical Question

  8. ADHD Rating Scale IV • 18-item scale • Parent completes form • Clinician scores form • Total score ranges from 0-54 • Divided into 2 subscales: • Hyperactivity/impulsivity • Inattentiveness Clinically significant response often referred to as a “30% reduction in ADHD-RS-IV” score ~16 point change 0 27 Hyperactivity Severe Mild 0 27 Inattentiveness DuPaulGJ. Guilford, 1998

  9. Clinical Global Impression Scales • CGI-S (severity) • Assessment of patient’s global functioning • CGI-I (improvement) • Evaluates change from the initiation of treatment • PGA (Parents’ Global Assessment) • Analog of CGI-S & CGI-I capturing parents’ perspective 7= Extremely ill/ very much worse from treatment initiation 1= normal/ very much improved Psychiatry 2007, 28-37

  10. Conner’s Parent & Teacher Rating Scales-Revised • CPRS-R and CTRS-R • Assesses patients’ cognitive, behavioral, & emotional problems • Short & long versions available • 4 categories for each question J Abnor Child Psych, 1998:26(4):257-268.

  11. Search Strategy

  12. RCTs Pediatrics 2008;121;e73, J Am AcadAdol Psych 2009;48(2):155-165, CNS Drugs 2010;24(9):755-768, J Am Acad Child Adol Psych 2012;51(1)74-85, J Am Acad Child Adol Psych 2013;52(9):921-930 Pediatrics 2008;121;e73, J Am AcadAdol Psych 2009;48(2):155-165, CNS Drugs 2010;24(9):755-768, J Am Acad Child Adol Psych 2012;51(1)74-85, J Am Acad Child Adol Psych 2013;52(9):921-930

  13. RCTs Pediatrics 2008;121;e73, J Am AcadAdol Psych 2009;48(2):155-165, CNS Drugs 2010;24(9):755-768, J Am Acad Child Adol Psych 2012;51(1)74-85, J Am Acad Child Adol Psych 2013;52(9):921-930

  14. Pediatrics 2008;121;e73, J Am AcadAdol Psych 2009;48(2):155-165, CNS Drugs 2010;24(9):755-768, J Am Acad Child Adol Psych 2012;51(1)74-85, J Am Acad Child Adol Psych 2013;52(9):921-930 *I= Inattentive, H= Hyperactive-impulsive, C= Combined

  15. RCTs GXR= guanfacine extended release

  16. SPD503-301 ADHD-RS-IV Results • Mean reduction: • Guanfacine XR -16.7 vs. Placebo -8.9 • P < .0001 Pediatrics 2008;121;e73

  17. Study Results: Benefits All results significant < 0.05 when compared to placebo *Mean change from baseline ** Placebo-adjust mean change *** % of patients with an improvement

  18. SPD503-304 ADHD-RS-IV Mean Changes (Weight-Adjusted Dose) p= 0.01 p= 0.0004 p= 0.001 p= 0.003 J Am AcadAdol Psych 2009;48(2):155-165

  19. Study Results: ADE *Most common reasons for discontinuation: lack of efficacy, withdrew consent, adverse effects

  20. Study Results: Safety Assessments

  21. Critique

  22. RCTs Pediatrics 2008;121;e73, J Am AcadAdol Psych 2009;48(2):155-165, CNS Drugs 2010;24(9):755-768, J Am Acad Child Adol Psych 2012;51(1)74-85, J Am Acad Child Adol Psych 2013;52(9):921-930

  23. Study Design (SPD503-313) J Am Acad Child Adol Psych 2012;51(1)74-85

  24. Concomitant Psychostimulants J Am Acad Child Adol Psych 2012;51(1)74-85 *OROS MPH= osmotic release system methylphenidate **SODAS MPH= spheroidal oral drug absorption system dexmethylphenidate

  25. Study Results: Benefits * p < 0.05 J Am Acad Child Adol Psych 2012;51(1)74-85

  26. Study Results: ADE *Most common reasons for discontinuation: withdrew consent, lost to follow-up, protocol non-adherence, adverse events

  27. Study Results: Safety Assessment* *Highest mean change from baseline

  28. Critique

  29. RCTs Pediatrics 2008;121;e73, J Am AcadAdol Psych 2009;48(2):155-165, CNS Drugs 2010;24(9):755-768, J Am Acad Child Adol Psych 2012;51(1)74-85, J Am Acad Child Adol Psych 2013;52(9):921-930

  30. Study Design (ADHD Tempo Study) J Am Acad Child Adol Psych 2013;52(9):921-930

  31. Study Results: Mean ADHD-RS-IV Change* • *All active groups compared to placebo. All results significant (p < 0.05) J Am Acad Child Adol Psych 2013;52(9):921-930

  32. Study Results: ADE *Most common reasons for discontinuation: withdrew consent, adverse event, lack of efficacy, lost to follow up **Placebo adjusted Least Squares mean change scores from baseline

  33. Critique

  34. Summary of Evidence • Guanfacine XR vs. Placebo

  35. Conclusion In children aged 6-12 with ADHD and who have either failed to respond to psychostimulant therapy or have experienced intolerable adverse effects to psychostimulants: I would recommend guanfacine as MONOTHERAPY

  36. In the future.. • Long term efficacy and safety information • SPD503-315 • SPD503-316 • SPD503-318 • Establishment of place in therapy • Comparison to gold standard therapy • Weight-based dosing recommendations

  37. Questions?