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ECE5320 Mechatronics Assignment#01a: Literature Survey on Actuators Topic: Advanced Motion Technologies’ Electromagnetic Actuators. Prepared by: Cal Coopmans Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering Utah State University E: coopmans@gmail.com; T: ( 435)797-7510;

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ECE5320 MechatronicsAssignment#01a: Literature Survey on Actuators Topic: Advanced Motion Technologies’Electromagnetic Actuators

Prepared by: Cal Coopmans

Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Utah State University

E: coopmans@gmail.com; T: (435)797-7510;

F: (435)797-3054 (ECE Dept.)

3/7/2008

outline
Outline
  • Reference list
  • To explore further
  • Major applications (I, II)
  • Basic working principle
  • A sample configuration of an ER (I, II)
  • A sample configuration of an ER – Control (I, II)
  • Major specifications (I, II, III)
  • Actuator Spectrum
  • Basic Dynamics
  • Limitations
  • Usage Notes

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

reference list
Reference list
  • http://www.yet2.com/app/insight/techofweek/7466
  • http://www.advancedmotion.net/products-servoram.asp
  • http://www.advancedmotion.net/pdf/servo1.pdf
  • http://www.advancedmotion.net/pdf/veh_sus.pdf
  • http://www.advancedmotion.net/pdf/servoperformance.pdf

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

to explore further
To explore further
  • Note that there currently only exists one supplier of Electromagnetic Linear Actuators (Rams) - Advanced Motion Technologies, www.amt.net
  • http://www.advancedmotion.net/products-overview.asp contains a general overview of the ER products

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

major applications
Major applications
  • ERs were originally invented to move Flight Simulators and other simulators
  • ERs can be used in nearly every situation that a traditional hydraulic actuator can be applied
  • ERs are completely sealed and can operate in harsh/underwater/sterile environments where hydraulic actuators cannot

Picture from: http://www.yet2.com/app/insight/techofweek/7466

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

major applications ii
Major Applications II
  • Stewart Platforms*
    • Motion Bases
    • Simulators/training
  • Active suspension systems
    • Since ERs don’t require a pump system and interconnects, they can be more directly integrated with control systems
  • Aircraft launchers for nuclear aircraft

*http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stewart_platform

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

basic working principal
Basic Working Principal
  • ERs have been described as “unrolled motors…” re-rolled at 90 degrees
  • They have a 3-phase interface that is virtually identical to traditional 3-phase servo motors
  • This means they can be controlled by standard 3-phase motor control hardware

Picture from: http://www.advancedmotion.net/pdf/servo1.pdf

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

simplified diagram of an er
Simplified Diagram of an ER

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

simplified diagram of an er ii double cup servoram
Simplified Diagram of an ER II“Double Cup ServoRam”

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

sample configuration
Sample Configuration
  • Attitude control of a moving automobile
  • Equivalent block for ER:
  • Suspension Mass (car body) separated from the stator and the ground by the ER’s air spring
  • A force-sensor combined with active control gives “constant” force during turns and other maneuvers

Example from: http://www.advancedmotion.net/pdf/veh_sus.pdf

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

sample configuration11
Sample Configuration
  • Attatude clearance control of a automobile
  • Control loop #1: Magnetic Force

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

sample configuration ii
Sample Configuration II
  • Ground clearance control of a automobile
  • Control loop #2: Gas Spring Pressure control

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

sample configuration control
Sample Configuration - Control
  • “By using a combination of the active and passive suspension control technologies, it is
  • also possible to arrange for the power collected by the damping system to be used to
  • drive the wheel units in fully active mode during the return stroke. This increases the
  • force holding the wheels in contact with the road and produces a smoother ride.”

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

sample configuration control ii
Sample Configuration – Control II

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

major specifications
Major Specifications
  • There are two main components to the ServoRam design:
    • The electrical actuator for dynamic loads
    • The gas (Air) compression for static loads
  • The ER design has
    • Speeds up to 80 meters/second
    • Thrusts of more than 100 metric tons
    • Strokes more than 100 meters(!)
    • High efficiency

From: http://www.advancedmotion.net/pdf/servoperformance.pdf

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

major specifications ii
Major Specifications II
  • A ER has:
    • Zero mechanical backlash due to a single moving part
    • Zero transport lag; only mechanical hysteresis
    • Better than 90% efficient
    • Scaleable (10N to 1MN)
    • Better than 1 micron precision
    • Better than 100m/second rate
    • More than 100Hz bandwidth
    • High temperature range (+-200deg C)

From: http://www.advancedmotion.net/pdf/servoperformance.pdf

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

major specifications iii
Major Specifications III
  • ERs:
    • Are mess free vs. hydraulics and other mechanical actuators
    • Have very low wear characteristics
      • Smooth in action
      • Nearly silent
    • Are clean!
      • Can be used where other actuators cannot

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

actuator spectrum
Actuator Spectrum
  • From USU Mechatronics Notes:

Note that the bandwidth in traditional systems is at the 90 deg phase lag point; and depends on the system dynamics

However, ERs have 0 transport lag

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

basic dynamics
Basic Dynamics
  • Given an actuator and load system:
  • Sine Wave Motion:
  • Differentiate for Velocity
  • Given Vmax,
  • 3dB Point:
  • Now, Inertia:
  • w/ P Newtons, and Mass M:
  • Maximum Amplitude:
  • 6dB Crossover (inertia dominates over input):
  • So, for a given system:

From:

http://www.advancedmotion.net/pdf/servoperformance.pdf

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

limitations
Limitations
  • Like any electromagnetic machine, the maximum performance is set by the rail voltage to the device vs. the back EMF generated from the operation of the device
  • However, transport lag (valve opening, pressure spooling, etc.) in hyrdaulic systems limits their maximum frequency and amplitude responses with a hard limit
  • EMs have a 3dB/decade curve instead

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

er usage notes
ER Usage Notes
  • ERs cannot be substituted directly for hydraulic actuators due to:
    • Static forces
    • Dynamic forces
  • The ER design handles these situations, but in a different way than hydraulics
  • With proper electromechanical and gas pressure control design, ERs can replace many actuators, while reducing the system complexity

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators