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University of Zagreb Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture Mobility of researchers in Croatia WEB-MOB Zagreb , 25 / 10 / 2007. Neven Duić. 19. 26. 27. 29. 37. 45. Typical path of researcher before 1990 studying 4-5 years undergraduate programme in 6-8 years

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neven dui

University of ZagrebFaculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval ArchitectureMobility of researchers in CroatiaWEB-MOBZagreb, 25/10/2007

Neven Duić








  • Typical path of researcher before 1990
    • studying 4-5 years undergraduate programme in 6-8 years
    • military service
    • two years in industry for technical sciences
    • assistant at the institution of graduation
    • studying 1-2 years Master programme plus MSc thesis in 6-8 years while doing teaching, research and projects
    • further 6-8 years of teaching, research and projects in order to obtain PhD
    • researcher becomes independent researcher






  • Were we want to go 2007
    • studying 3 years BSc programme in 3-4 years
    • studying 2 years MSc programme in 2-3 years (at different institution)
    • further 3-5 years of studying, teaching, research and projects in order to obtain PhD (again at different institution)
    • Postdoc 2-6 years (again at different institution)
    • researcher becomes independent researcher
Research before 1990
    • inbreeding – from cradle to grave
    • only short term mobility allowed – once out forever out
    • very slow change
    • after cut-off age of 30 – generally unemployable
    • research was more necessary nuisance than necessity
    • the only way to open new areas was to increase number – increasing the curricula – further slowing down the system
Increased mobility should try to avoid draining future members of their talents completely
    • reintegration
    • mobility as part of international cooperation
    • increasing research opportunities in Western Balkans
    • reintegration plus – returning researcher brings funds to his institution (outsourcing parts of research)
    • avoiding making one off choices
barriers to incoming mobility
Barriers to incoming mobility
  • Visas, temporary stay, permanent residence and work permits
  • Academic barriers
  • Financial barriers
  • Social and health security barriers
  • Additional : language barriers, accommodation and housing
visas up to 90 days
Visas (up to 90 days)

Visa policy – the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration and theMinistry of Internal Affairs

  • precedence to security matters
  • no distinction among researchers and economic migrants
  • Visa waiver to EU + EFTA + WB (-AL) + OECD + most of Latin America
temporary stay above 90 days
Temporary stay (above 90 days)

Permit policy – the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration and theMinistry of Internal Affairs

  • Only way to stay longer than 90 days (Art. 37)
  • Any paid research work related activity longer than 30 days (Art. 95)
  • Most paid work related activity
  • Should be applied for the first time before coming
  • Extension possible in Croatia
work permits
Work permits

Permits policy – the Ministry of Economy, Labour and Entrepreneurship and theMinistry of Internal Affairs

  • Quota system – around 1000 new work permits per year
    • Science and education – 10
  • Research and tertiary teaching without work permits
    • professors invited as lecturers by Croatian universities, scientists doing scientific and professional further studies, scientific representatives of international organisations and scientists taking part in the execution of scientific research projects important for the Republic of Croatia;
    • aliens who in the Republic of Croatia have the status of fulltime school or university student, when engaged in activities of a temporary nature, through authorised agents, and in line with the regulations governing engagement in such activities.
institutions in charge of incoming mobility
Institutions in charge of incoming mobility
  • Ministry of Foreign Affairs and European Integration
  • Ministry of Internal Affairs
  • Ministry of Science, Education and Sports
  • Ministry of Economy, Labour and Entrepreneurship
  • Agency for Mobility and EU Programmes (new)
  • Agency for Research and Higher Education (ENIC/NARIC)

Capacity significantly increased with negotiation process.

Still missing lower down …

academic barriers
Academic barriers
  • Academic qualification recognition function well since ENIC/NARIC office established
  • ECTS implemented but does not function in intended way – no student mobility
academic barriers1
Academic barriers
  • Bologna process
    • open acceptance but hidden resistance to change
    • ratified Lisbon convention and entered Bologna process
    • two-cycle degree system
    • University integration stalled
    • ECTS implemented de iure
academic barriers2
Academic barriers
  • Bologna process
    • ECTS and student mobility
      • intra-University curricular mobility difficult due to rigid programs – possible but discouraged due to wide in house curricular offer – also financial barriers
      • inter-University (national, regional and international) mobility practically impossible due rigid programs but also due to lack of finance vehicles (Erasmus, etc.)
financial barriers
Financial barriers
  • Low remuneration – research investment has to raise
  • Very limited number of fellowships rarely open to foreigners
  • Very low limit to untaxed student fellowships – 1000 HRK per month (150 EUR)
  • High taxation of student fellowships– the total cost is approximately double than the fellowship
  • High overheads institution take also on funds for fellowships
social and health security problems
Social and health security problems
  • Undeveloped social and health security system for foreign researchers
    • undergraduate students may use health security system dedicated to students
  • Dispersed and uncertain information
additional barriers
Additional barriers
  • General attitude that foreigners take jobs from locals (and research is considered employment, not studying, and is taxed as such)
  • Lack of courses in English language

Language barriers

  • obligatory usage of local languages, especially for thesis, all the documents, diplomas, etc. – even when lectures are in foreign language

Accommodation and housing

  • weak formal rental market, no appropriate accommodation (apartments, etc.) for visiting researchers
  • language barriers
  • price barriers
interregional mobility
Interregional mobility
  • Need of reform in the WB research – similar problems due to similar context
  • WB research has to integrate into ERA
  • Increase of regional mobility as a consequence of regional cooperation
intersectorial mobility academia and industry
Intersectorial mobility – academia and industry
  • Low level knowledge transfer between academia and industry
  • Economy is low added value
  • FDI has the crucial contribution
      • FDI into R&D – outsourcing R&D
      • general FDI with R&D component
  • Local companies – not investing into R&D
      • negative attitude towards “science”
  • Large potential
    • Well educated workforce
    • Reasonably priced graduates
croatia towards eu
Croatia towardsEU
  • Extensive portfolio of policy measures necessary
  • Learning form best practises
  • ERA integration
  • Flexibility & coordination & simplicity in the governmental organisations