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C.1 Petrochemicals. Polymers – large molecules coomposed of 500 to 20000 or more repeating units of simpler molecules known as monomers. Petrochemicals – compounds from oil or natural gas. Ex. Detergents, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics…

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c 1 petrochemicals
C.1 Petrochemicals
  • Polymers – large molecules coomposed of 500 to 20000 or more repeating units of simpler molecules known as monomers.
  • Petrochemicals – compounds from oil or natural gas.
  • Ex. Detergents, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics…
  • Synthetic polymers – paint components, fabrics, rubber, foams,…
slide3

Chemists use hydrocarbons and knowledge of carbon and covalent bonding to build new molecules

  • Until 1800s all materials were natural materials. Eg stone, wood, cotton, silk
  • Commercially made products: cellulose from wood and shellac from insects. These are polymers – long chain molecules made out of monomers
  • Modern products are more man-made. Petrochemical – man-made out of petroleum. Eg: insulation, plastic, foam, fabrics like nylon, detergent, pesticides
ethene builder molecule
Ethene – builder molecule
  • C2H4
  • Aka ethylene
  • Contains a double covalent bond
  • The double bond is very reactive
  • Ethene and water form ethyl alcohol
  • Addition reactions – adding a reactant onto double bond
addition reactions cont d
Addition Reactions, cont’d
  • Ethene can do an addition reaction with itself.
  • Makes polyethylene – contains 500 to 20,000 ethenes linked in a chain
  • Polyethylene is an example of an “addition polymer”
  • Other polymers are made from monomers like ethene: eg vinyl chloride to Polyvinylchloride (PVC)
polymers
Polymers
  • Polymers can be long straight chains (like spagetti), branched, or cross-linked
polymer structure
Polymer Structure
  • Branched polymers – branches perpendicular to the main chain.
  • Linear polymer – do not connect
  • Cross linking – makes polymers more rigid, cross linked, can’t slide.
  • Ex. Soda bottle, soda bottle cap, which one has more cross linking?
beyond alkanes
Beyond Alkanes
  • Saturated hydrocarbons – each carbon atom forms as many single covalent bonds.
  • Alkenes – double bonded
  • Alkynes – triple bonded
  • Alkanes – single bonded
  • Unsaturated hydrocarbons – carbon double bonded or tripled, does not have the max amt of hydrogen bonds.
substituted alkenes functional groups
Substituted alkenes: Functional Groups
  • Ester –scented

C

  • O - C = O
  • R = carbon chain
  • Alcohol
  • C – OH
  • Cycloalkanes – rings
  • Aromatic compounds – benzene, double bonded
sec d energy alternatives to petroleum
Sec. D Energy Alternatives to Petroleum
  • Biomolecules – organic molecules found in plants and animals.
  • Oilshale – petroleum from tar sands and oil shale rock.
  • Coalliquefaction – liquid fuel produced from coal. The present cost of mining and converting coal to liquid fuel is greater than that of producing the same quantity of fuel from petroleum.