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6. Efficiency and Fairness of Markets. CHAPTER. It is more than probable that the average man could, with no injury to his health, increase his efficiency fifty percent. Walter Scott Novelist (1771 – 1832). C H A P T E R C H E C K L I S T.

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slide1

6

Efficiency and Fairness of Markets

CHAPTER

It is more than probable that the average man could, with no injury to his health, increase his efficiency fifty percent.

Walter Scott

Novelist

(1771 – 1832)

c h a p t e r c h e c k l i s t
C H A P T E R C H E C K L I S T
  • When you have completed your study of this chapter, you will be able to
  • 1 Define and explain the features of an efficient allocation.
  • 2 Distinguish between value and price and define consumer surplus.

3 Distinguish between cost and price and define producer surplus.

6 1 allocation methods and efficiency
6.1 ALLOCATION METHODS AND EFFICIENCY
  • Using Resources Efficiently
    • Allocative efficiency - the quantities of goods and services produced are those that people value most highly, and combination of goods/services is production efficient (not possible to produce more of one good or service without producing less of something else).

AllocativeEfficiency = Producing at highest-valued point on PPF

Production Efficiency = Producing at any point on PPF

Allocative efficient point is production efficient, but only one production efficient point is allocative efficient.

6 1 allocation methods and efficiency4
6.1 ALLOCATION METHODS AND EFFICIENCY

Marginal Benefit (REVIEW)

  • Marginal benefit- benefit that a person receives from consuming one more unit of a good or service.
  • MB = value of what people are willing to forgo to get one more unit of the good.
  • MB decreases as the quantity increases—the principle of decreasing marginal benefit (more often called diminishing marginal utility)
  • Demand curve = MB curve
6 1 allocation methods and efficiency5
6.1 ALLOCATION METHODS AND EFFICIENCY

Marginal Cost (REVIEW)

  • Marginal cost- opportunity cost of producing one more unit of a good or service, measured by the slope of the PPF.
  • MC curve shows the amount of other goods and services that we must give up to produce one more unit
  • MC of producing a good increases as more of the good is produced.
  • Supply curve = MC curve
6 1 allocation methods and efficiency6
6.1 ALLOCATION METHODS AND EFFICIENCY

Efficient Allocation (Allocative efficiency)

  • The efficient allocation is the highest-valued allocation.
  • Allocation is efficient if it is not possible to produce more of any good without producing less of something else that is valued more highly.
  • Efficient allocation (highest valued) where MC = MB
  • Look at PPF
6 2 value price consumer surplus
6.2 VALUE, PRICE, CONSUMER SURPLUS
  • Demand and Marginal Benefit
      • Value = what the buyer gets (what I’m willing to pay).
      • Price = what the buyer pays (what I have to pay).
    • MB = value of one more unit of a good or service
    • MB = maximum price that people are willing to pay for another unit of the good or service.
6 2 value price consumer surplus8
6.2 VALUE, PRICE, CONSUMER SURPLUS
  • The consumer will buy one more unit of a good or service if its price is less than or equal to the value the consumer places on it.
  • A demand curve is a marginal benefit curve.
  • Demand curve shows willingness to pay.
6 2 value price consumer surplus9
6.2 VALUE, PRICE, CONSUMER SURPLUS
  • Consumer Surplus
    • Consumer surplus- marginal benefit from a good or service minus the price paid for it, summed over the quantity consumed.
    • Look at mkt surplus
6 3 cost price producer surplus
6.3 COST, PRICE, PRODUCER SURPLUS
  • Supply and Marginal Cost
      • Cost = what a seller must give up to produce the good. (what it cost me to make)
      • Price = what a seller receives when the good is sold. (what I sold it for)
    • MC = cost of producing one more unit of a good or service
6 3 cost price producer surplus11
6.3 COST, PRICE, PRODUCER SURPLUS
  • The seller will produce one more unit of a good or service if the price for which it can be sold exceeds or equals its marginal cost.
  • A supply curve is a marginal cost curve.
  • Supply curve shows the seller’s cost of producing each unit.
6 3 cost price producer surplus12
6.3 COST, PRICE, PRODUCER SURPLUS
  • Producer Surplus
    • Producer surplusis the price of a good minus the opportunity cost of producing it, summed over the quantity produced.
6 4 are markets efficient
6.4 ARE MARKETS EFFICIENT?
  • In a competitive market:
    • The demand curve shows buyers’ marginal benefit.
    • The supply curve shows the sellers’ marginal cost.
  • So at equilibrium in a competitive market, MB = MC
  • Resources allocation is efficient.
  • So the competitive market delivers the efficient quantity.
6 4 are markets efficient14
6.4 ARE MARKETS EFFICIENT?
  • Total Surplus is Maximized
    • Total surplusis the sum of consumer surplus and producer surplus.
    • The competitive equilibrium maximizes total surplus.
    • Buyers seek the lowest possible price and sellers seek the highest possible price.
    • But as buyers and sellers pursue their self-interest, the social interest is served.
6 4 are markets efficient15
6.4 ARE MARKETS EFFICIENT?
  • Underproduction and Overproduction
    • Inefficiency can occur because:
      • Too little is produced—underproduction.
      • Too much is produced—overproduction.
6 4 are markets efficient16
6.4 ARE MARKETS EFFICIENT?

Underproduction

  • When a firm cuts production to less than the efficient quantity, a deadweight loss is created.
  • Deadweight loss -loss of surplus due to inefficient underproduction or overproduction.
  • The deadweight loss is borne by the entire society. It is a social loss.
6 4 are markets efficient17
6.4 ARE MARKETS EFFICIENT?

Overproduction

  • When the government pays producers a subsidy, the quantity produced exceeds the efficient quantity.
  • A deadweight loss arises that reduces total surplus to less than its maximum.
6 4 are markets efficient18
6.4 ARE MARKETS EFFICIENT?
  • Obstacles to Efficiency
    • Markets generally do a good job of sending resources to where they are most highly valued.
    • But markets can be inefficient in the face of:

• Price and quantity regulations

• Taxes and subsidies

• Externalities

• Public goods and common resources

• Monopoly

      • High transactions costs