Understanding Intimate Partner Violence Barbie Brashear Amy Smith Harris County Domestic Violence Coordinating Council
Statistics • An estimated 1.3 million women are victims • 85% of domestic violence victims are women. • Females who are 20-24 years of age are at the greatest risk • Most cases of domestic violence are never reported to the police. • 1 in 4 women and 1 in 7 men have experienced severe physical violence by an intimate partner. • Nearly ½ of all women and men in the U.S. have experienced psychological aggression by an intimate partner in their lifetime. • 30% to 60% of perpetrators of intimate partner violence also abuse children in the household.
Healthy vs. Unhealthy Relationships Healthy Relationships • Value Systems : A sense of belonging • Boundaries: Members speak freely, no fear of retaliation or punishment • Freedom of Expression: Members share lively discussions and love is not withdrawn due to differences Unhealthy Relationships Rigid or nonexistent, unaccepting of differing views Individuals are isolated with little community connection Pressure to hide feelings to avoid adversity
Organizing and Negotiating Skills: Members discuss differences and little stress exists • Warmth, Joy and Humor: Members share happy experiences and good humor which allow them to feel at ease Individuals argue repeatedly and structure is based on control Individuals have little or no shared, happy memories and feel as though no one cares. They do not seek to comfort others and have humor at the expense of others
Definition of IPV- Intimate Partner Violence
A pattern of coercive behavior which must include physical aggression or threat, commonly accompanied by other forms of controlling behavior that adults or adolescents use against their intimate partners. (Kemp A., 1998) Chronic Battering Intimidation Restricting Money One Hit Insults
Styles of Violence Tyrannical Offender • Aggression, intimidation, verbal abuse, physical assault to control and dominate • Intention to frighten, intimidate and punish • Feels justified or understandable due to frustration and anger • Tendency to minimize his violence by admitting to having committed verbal abuse, denial and shift of blame • Describes partner as being submissive and careful around him
Exploder Offender Experiences violence as being out of control, sudden, explosive Typically in response to partner criticism or challenge Uses violence to silent partner Acknowledge use of violence but blames partner for provoking him
Common Traits in an Abusive Relationship • Quick Involvement • Relationship Enmeshment- “You are all I need and if you love me, I am all you need” • Isolation • Excessive Rule Making • Rigid Gender Roles • Jealousy • Animal Cruelty • No accountability for feelings and behaviors
History of battering and sexual violence Using force during an argument Breaking or striking objects Cruelty to children Negative attitude toward women Drugs and alcohol abuse (never an excuse)
CD Assessment Psych/Mental Health Parenting Education Visitation Individual/Family Therapy DV Classes CP Case Mgmt EPC Hearing Service Plan Emergency Placement Safety Plan Risk Assessment Safety Assessment Court Oversees and Sanctions Plan Conditions of Release CHIPS COURT Child Placement No Contact Order Arraignment Hearing Pre-Trial/ Hearing Trial Sentencing Monitoring/Probation Initial Intervention Unit Contacted Child Protection Screening Jail CP Investigation Arrest Report Non-Arrest Report Child Welfare Assessment Child Maltreatment Assessment Arrest No Arrest Law Enforcement Notified Judge Reviews Squads Investigate 911 Call Advocacy Program Files OFP Sheriff Serves Respondent Civil Court Hearing Ex Parte Denied Ex Parte Granted Files for Divorce Seeks Shelter Landlord/HRA Notified Family Court Hearing Warning Given Sheriff Evicts OFP Granted OFP Denied Interviews by Evaluator Temporary Custody Eviction Hearing OFP Filed Custody Hearing Custody Awarded Custody Evaluation Supervised Exchange/Visitation Final Divorce Hearing Child Support Established Reliefs Granted
Stages of Behavioral Change • Pre-contemplation • He loves me and the kids. It’s my fault. • Contemplation • I am scared for myself and my kids. Where can I go for help? Prochaska JO, 1997 Zimmerman GL et al, 2000
Stages of Behavioral Change • Preparation • I need an escape plan • Action • I am out of here! Prochaska JO, 1997 Zimmerman GL et al, 2000
Stages of Behavioral Change • Maintenance Prochaska JO, 1997 Zimmerman GL et al, 2000 I will survive. I can support my family and found friends to help.
SW Social Work Assessment: • Immediate risk:“If you return home, will you or your children be in immediate physical danger?” • Child Abuse:“Is your partner hurting or threatening your children?” • Stage of readiness for change:“What type of assistance would you like?” “Are there any changes you would like to make?” “What steps would help you towards those goals?” “What actions are you ready to take?” • Suicide:“Have you had suicidal thoughts in response to your situation?”
BARRIERS TO LEAVING: FEAR $$$$ Religion
BARRIERS TO LEAVING: Blame Shame Children
THE OVERLAP Approximately 2 Million Women Abused Approximately 1 Million Children Maltreated Child Maltreatment • Occurs in 33-77% of families in which there is abuse of an adult Children of battered mothers • 6-15 times more likely to be abused 30-60% DHHS, 1998 and Tjaden & Theones, 1998, In Harm’s Way: Domestic Violence and Child Maltreatment
Young children and their caregivers need to be safe… Two kinds of difficult decisions. • First, how will she protect herself and her children from the physical dangers posed by her partner? • Second, how will she provide for her children?
Effects on Children: • Developmental Regression • Fear, Anxiety, Depression • Impairments in learning • Impairments in social/emotional learning • Risk of coincident or bystander victimization • PTSD • Risk of Future Victimization, perpetration
RESOURCES: Criminal Justice Law Enforcement Medical Services Survivors DV Services Other Social Services DFPS
What can I do? • Listen to the victim and believe her. • Tell her she is not alone and that help is available. • Let her know that without intervention, abuse often escalates in frequency and severity over time. • Seek expert assistance. Suggesting that she merely return home places her and her children in real danger.
What can I do? • Hold the abuser accountable. Don't minimize his abusive behavior. Support him in seeking specialized batterers counseling to help change his behavior. • Continue to hold him accountable and to support and protect the victim even after he has begun a counseling program.
Barbie Brashear Amy Smith HCDVCC 281.400.3680 www.hcdvcc.org