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Understanding and Monitoring Harmful Algal Blooms in Freshwaters. Elena Litchman Michigan State University and Kellogg Biological Station . Fresh Water is a Limited Resource. Only 2.5% of water on Earth is fresh 2/3 is locked in glaciers and polar ice caps.

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understanding and monitoring harmful algal blooms in freshwaters
Understanding and Monitoring Harmful Algal Blooms in Freshwaters

Elena Litchman

Michigan State University and

Kellogg Biological Station

fresh water is a limited resource

Fresh Water is a Limited Resource

Only 2.5% of water on Earth is fresh

2/3 is locked in glaciers and polar ice caps

http://eospso.gsfc.nasa.gov/ftp_docs/water_litho.pdf

http://www.unep.org/themes/Freshwater/Related_Links/index.asp

slide3

Fresh Water is a Limited Resource

USA Today, October 19, 2007

Not only water quantity, but water quality!

Water quality problem: Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)

talk outline

Talk Outline

General Information on HABs

The role of global change in HAB proliferation

Current research on global change and HABs in my lab

hab phytoplankton cyanobacteria freshwater and marine
HAB Phytoplankton Cyanobacteria(freshwater and marine)

Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs)

http://www.keweenawalgae.mtu.edu/ALGAL_IMAGES/cyanobacteria/

http://www.ab.lst.se/

Atmospheric nitrogen fixation

http://www.botan.su.se/Fysiologi/CYANO/SUB-2.HTM

cyanobacteria in temperate lakes main players

Cyanobacteria in Temperate Lakes Main Players

Anabaena

Aphanizomenon

Planktothrix

Microcystis

cyanobacterial toxins

Cyanobacterial Toxins

Microcystins - produced by Microcystis, Planktothrix (Oscillatoria), Anabaena

LR

YR

Hepatotoxins

Neurotoxins

Differ in toxicity

Babica et al. J. Phycol. 2006

sigmaaldrich.com

global change effects on cyanobacteria

Global Change Effects on Cyanobacteria

  • Increased air and water temperature
  • Directly stimulates growth
  • Longer ice-free period
  • Stimulates growth
  • Increased stratification (stability of the water column)
    • Increases competitive advantage (buoyancy)
  • Decreased mixing
      • Increases competitive advantage (buoyancy)
  • Increased nutrient limitation
      • May increase competitive advantage (N-fixers)
  • Increased oxygen depletion (at the bottom)
interaction of multiple global change stressors

Interaction of Multiple Global Change Stressors

Invasive Species

HAB-forming cyanobacteria

Zebra mussels

Increased Nutrient Inputs

Increased Pesticide Inputs

cyanobacteria in temperate lakes invasive newcomer

Cyanobacteria in Temperate Lakes Invasive Newcomer

  • Cylindrospermopsis
  • raciborskii
  • Invasive
  • Fixes N
  • Produces toxins
  • Forms deep chlorophyll maxima

cylindrospermopsin

global change and habs12
Global Change and HABs

Frequency and severity of HABs will likely increase in the future!

lab members participating in hab research
Lab members participating in HAB research

Mary Anne Evans

Kohei Yoshiyama

Jarad Mellard

Ally Morgan

Pam Woodruff

Kelly Amrhein

Paula Tezanos

current hab work in my lab
Current HAB Work in my Lab
  • Field sampling of diverse lakes in MI
  • Lab experiments (physiology, competitive interactions)
  • Modeling interactions between HAB species and the rest of the plankton
field sampling
Field Sampling
  • Monitor and sample diverse lakes in West Michigan
  • Characterize physical structure of the water column (temperature, light, turbulence)
  • Measure chemical parameters (nutrients)
  • Determine phytoplankton community structure (HAB species)
  • Measure toxins (microcystin)
slide17

Field Sampling and Monitoring Sites

Current sampling

Proposed sampling

detailed physical structure of diverse lakes
Detailed Physical Structureof Diverse Lakes
  • SCAMP (Self-Contained Autonomous Microprofiler)
  • #46
  • Moored thermistor chains
  • Temperature
  • Light
  • Chl fluorescence
  • Turbulence
  • Stratification/mixing
depth and seasonal variation in turbulence gull lake mi
Depth and Seasonal Variation in TurbulenceGull Lake. MI

Lowest turbulence

Highest Microcystis abundance

monitoring cyanobacteria

Monitoring Cyanobacteria

Physical processes

Presence of Invasive Species

Abundance

Toxin concentration

Evans et al. in prep.

lake monitoring networks
Lake Monitoring Networks
  • GLEON (Global Lake Ecological
  • Observatory Network)
  • WATERS Network

( Water and Environmental Research System)

  • CUAHSI (Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science)

Parameters to measure:

Physical, chemical and biological