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Physical Science. Rocks and Minerals. Rocks. Igneous rocks – Formed by the cooling and crystallization of hot molten rock called magma Igneous means – formed by fire 95% of the earth crust are igneous rocks examples include basalt and granite. From yahoo images. Rocks.

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Physical Science

Rocks and Minerals


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Rocks

Igneous rocks –

  • Formed by the cooling and crystallization of hot molten rock called magma

  • Igneous means – formed by fire

  • 95% of the earth crust are igneous rocks

  • examples include basalt and granite

From yahoo images


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Rocks

Sedimentary rocks –

  • Formed by weatherd

    material carried by water, wind or ice.

  • Most common rock in the upper part of the earth’s crust

  • They cover 2/3 of earths surface.

  • Examples include sandstone, shale and limestone

From yahoo images


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Rocks

Metamorphic rocks –

  • Formed from pre-existing rocks that are transformed under high

  • temperature and pressure.

  • Metamorphic means – changed in form

  • Examples include marble, slate and diamond

From yahoo images


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Minerals

  • Minerals – The building blocks of rocks.

  • Minerals are naturally formed, generally inorganic crystalline solid composed of an ordered array of atoms having a specific composition.

  • Minerals differ from one another in their combination and proportion of elements and internal arrangement of atoms.


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Classifying Minerals

  • Crystal form – shape of crystal structure.


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Classifying Minerals

  • Crystal form – shape of crystal structure.


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Classifying Minerals

  • Polymorph – mineral composed of the same atom but have different crystal structure.


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Classifying Minerals

Mohs Hardness Scale

Hardness is measured on the Mohs Scale, identified numerically hardness of by standard minerals, from 1 (softest) to 10 (hardest):

  • Talc

  • Gypsum

  • Clacite

  • Fluorite

  • Apatite

  • Orthoclase

  • Quartz

  • Topaz

  • Corundum

  • Diamond

  • A mineral of a given hardenss will scratch a mineral of a lower number. With a systematic approach, you can use minerals of known hardness to determine the relative hardness of any other mineral.


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    Classifying Minerals

    • Cleavage – tendency of a mineral to break along planes of weakness.

    • Fracture – break that is not along the lines of a cleavage plane

    From yahoo images


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    Classifying Minerals

    • Luster – appearance of its surface as it reflects light

    • Luster isindependent ofcolor

    From yahoo images


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    Classifying Luster of Minerals

    • Adamantine - very gemmy crystals

    • Dull - just a non-reflective surface of any kind

    • Earthy - the look of dirt or dried mud

    • Fibrous - the look of fibers

    • Greasy - the look of grease

    • Gumdrop - the look a sucked on hard candy

    • Metallic - the look of metals

    • Pearly - the look of a pearl

    • Pitchy - the look of tar

    • Resinous - the look of resins such as dried glue or chewing gum

    • Silky - the look of silk, similar to fibrous but more compact

    • Submetallic - a poor metallic luster, opaque but reflecting little light

    • Vitreous - the most common luster, it simply means the look of glass

    • Waxy - the look of wax


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    Classifying Minerals

    • Color – is usually a poor way to judge minerals – the same mineral may exhibit a variety of colors

    • Streak – color or mineral in its powder form. Usually obtained by rubbing across a porcelain plate.

    From yahoo images


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    Classifying Minerals

    • Specific Gravity – Density like measurement based on a comparison with the density of water.

    From yahoo images


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    Classifying Minerals

    • Chemical properties – fiz test – add HCl to carbonates and it will fizz


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    Makeup of Rocks and Minerals

    • 118 know elements

    • 88 are naturally occurring

    • These combine to make 3400 different minerals

    • About two dozen minerals are abundant

    • These are made from 8 elements



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    Makeup of Rocks and Minerals

    • These 8 elements make up 98 % of the mass of the crust

    • Half of this mass is due to O alone

    • These minerals are broken into groups – silicates

      oxides & carbonates

      sulfides & sulfates


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    Building blocks of rock forming minerals

    • Silicates – silicon with oxygen – SiO4


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    Building blocks of rock forming minerals

    • Silicates – silicon with oxygen – SiO4


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    Oxides and Carbonates

    • Oxides – metals combined with oxygen

      Iron (hematite-magnetite)

      chromium (chromitite)

      manganese (pyrolusite)

      tin (cassiterite) uraninum (uraninite)

    • Most metals come from these ores

    Hemetite From yahoo images


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    Oxides and Carbonates

    • Carbonates – minerals composed of carbonate ion CO3

      Calcite – calcium carbonate CaCO3

      Dolomite – calcium and magnesium carbonate CaMg(CO3)2

      These two make up limestone

    calcite From yahoo images


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    Sulfides and Sulfates

    minerals composed of sulfur S and

    Sulfate SO42-

    • Pyrite – fools gold FeS2

    • Gypsum – calcium sulfate CaSO4

    pyrite From yahoo images