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Grade 11 WORLD RELIGIONS HRE 3M1 / HRT 3M1. MODERN CHALLENGES TO TRADITIONAL RELIGION. PHILOSOPHY:. means “the love of wisdom” it is reasoned truth or truth achieved by means of thinking, logic and reason. it is a logical point of view or code of behaviour. IDEALISM:.

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philosophy
PHILOSOPHY:
  • means “the love of wisdom”
  • it is reasoned truth or truth achieved by means of thinking, logic and reason.
  • it is a logical point of view or code of behaviour.
idealism
IDEALISM:
  • Philosophy originated with Plato (c. 428-c. 347 BCE)
  • He proposed that the visible world is only a fussy shadow of reality. True reality are our “eternal and unchanging ideas”
  • Intellectual / spiritual over physical / material  “mind over matter”
materialism
MATERIALISM:
  • The view that the world is entirely dependent on matter.
    • Things are what they appear to be; nothing more, nothing less.
  • What we can observe and measure is the final reality.
  • Based in empiricism, which strives to measure and quantify.
  • Consumerism which defines and individual by what he / she possesses.
individualism
INDIVIDUALISM:
  • Philosophy which places a high value on individual freedom and choice.
  • Often the wants and needs of the individual are valued beyond the needs of the larger group.
  • Opposes tradition or authority.
collectivism
COLLECTIVISM:
  • Opposed to individualism.
  • The individual is subordinate to the social collective (state, nation, race or social class) and is an agent for the “common good.”
  • Communism is a type of collectivism based on the theories of Marx and Engels and was adapted for their specific states by Lenin, Mao and others.
civil religion
CIVIL RELIGION:
  • Is a cultural complex of beliefs and rituals which supersedes or replaces a religious cosmology for the citizens of various countries.
  • It has existed throughout history in Imperial Rome, where the emperor was worshipped as God and in Japan, where the emperor was given divine status until WWII.
civil religion cont d
CIVIL RELIGION: (cont’d)
  • In places like the contemporary United States, this religion serves to amplify the loyalty and patriotism of the individual citizen.
  • Observations and rituals include reverence to the national flag and anthem, placing the hand over the heart, ritualized folding of the flag, special respect for national monuments.
secular worldview
SECULAR WORLDVIEW:
  • Worldview is the term we use to thing and speak about a whole way of thinking, feeling and acting about life.
  • A secular worldview is a way of thinking about the world where the only truth worth considering is one based on human values alone.
  • Religion is pushed out of the picture and science, technology and philosophy are believed to provide the answers to life’s problems.
secular worldview1
SECULAR WORLDVIEW:
  • There is no divine purpose or creator of the universe.
  • Nature can be observed scientifically.
  • Each human person is self-sufficient and stands alone, with no need for God or an ultimate reality.
  • Religious worldviews are to be discarded as attempts to deny the dignity and liberty of humanity.
cosmocentric
COSMOCENTRIC:
  • Means “Nature-centred.”
  • Nature is an expression of the sacred realm and is alive with the spirit of this sacred source.
  • People are dependent upon nature and see nature as a living reality infused with a spiritual presence (Aboriginal Spirituality).
theocentric
THEOCENTRIC:
  • Means “God-centred.”
  • Life’s meaning comes from its relationship with an ultimate reality.
  • The purpose of this life is to discover the path that leads to union with God. (Five Great Religions)
anthropocentric
ANTHROPOCENTRIC:
  • Means “human-centred”
  • The value of human individuals and communities is central.
  • Often associated with “Humanism”, which celebrates human values / talents.
atheism
ATHEISM:
  • belief that all godsand any God were only creations of the human imagination.
  • Religion was and is of no benefit to mankind; it only prevents the progress of humanity.
agnosticism
AGNOSTICISM:
  • A concept, not a religion. It is a belief related to the existence or non-existence of God.
  • An agnostic believes that God’s existence can neither be proved nor disproved on the basis of current evidence.
consumerism
CONSUMERISM:

Consumerism 

  • A person is defined by what they possess.
  • Consumerism is an attitude to life that rates material goods and personal appearance as more important than inner (spiritual) development or true personal relationships.
  • Modern advertising reflects and shapes this consumer mentality by suggesting that possessions can fulfill the role of religion.
moral relativism
MORAL RELATIVISM:

Moral Relativism 

  • Personal opinion is the ultimate reality and is more important than truth.
  • All values are relative to each person. Therefore, there are no absolute values (right vs. wrong), only those that are useful in the secular culture.
  • How you see thingsand how you feel about themis more important than any considerations about truth or wrong vs. right.