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Burning Bridges: What History Has Taught Us About Civil Rights. While the World Watched. by Carolyn Maull McKinstry The coming of age story of a Birmingham bombing survivor during the Civil Rights Movement. Essential Question. What are the elements of effective annotation of a text?

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Burning Bridges: What History Has Taught Us About Civil Rights


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    1. Burning Bridges: What History Has Taught Us About Civil Rights While the World Watched by Carolyn Maull McKinstry The coming of age story of a Birmingham bombing survivor during the Civil Rights Movement

    2. Essential Question What are the elements of effective annotation of a text? Task: Group and independent reading and note taking Standards: ELACC7RL1, ELACC7RL3, ELACC7RL6, ELACC7W9, ELACC7SL6, ELACC7L4

    3. Annotation Definition: An annotation is a brief description or summary of a work such as an article, chapter of a book, website, or movie. An annotation attempts to give enough information to make a decision as to whether or not to read the complete work. Annotations may be descriptive or critical. Close Reading and Annotation: Keeping Middle School Students Focusing on the Text pg (21-24)

    4. Essential Question: How do author’s use factual evidence to persuade readers? • Task: Pre-reading and Prediction • Standards: ELACC7RI3, ELACC7RI5, ELA7CC7SL1, ELACC7SL2,

    5. Building Background Knowledge • Directions: Divide students into partners. Teacher provides research on topics on the next slide. Students work together to make an anchor chart on topic to present for background knowledge.

    6. Building Background Knowledge • Freedom Riders • Bloody Sunday • Martin Luther King Jr. • Rosa Parks • Brown vs Board of Education • George Wallace • Bull Connor • KKK • Emancipation Proclamation • Lincoln’s Role in Emancipation Proclamation • 3 Amendments • The Little Rock Nine • Jim Crow Laws • Malcolm X

    7. What is a Memoir? What’s the difference between an autobiography and a memoir? • A memoir is a type of writing that focuses on a short period in the writer’s life or a specific aspect of that life • An autobiography focuses on the chronology of the writer’s entire life while a memoir covers one specific aspect of the writer’s life.

    8. Background Information • The Civil Rights Movement Inspirational http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g88rMfYFe64 Background Information Civil Rights Movement

    9. Text Preview • Text Preview: While the World Watched • Describe and • discuss the cover • art and what it • reveals about the • story. • Describe any • graphic features • presented in the • text. • How is the text • organized? • Describe any • persuasive • elements noted in • the preview.

    10. What is Civil Rights? • Prediction using a Circle Map or other graphic organizer. What do you know about civil rights? • Frame of Reference: How does Civil Rights affect every day life? Who is affected?

    11. Civil Rights • Class Discussion • Civil Rights definition: the personal rights of the individual citizen, in most countries upheld by law, as in the US,  established by the 13th and 14th Amendments to the U.S. constitution and certain Congressional acts, especially as applied to an individual or a minority group.

    12. Civil Rights Timeline • Students begin a journal based on chapter by chapter reading to record events, predictions, and personal reflections. • Students will produce a timeline for a 60% grade at the end of the unit. (Poster or Power point)

    13. While the World Watched/ Freedom Riders

    14. Essential Question: What techniques can I use to comprehend what I read? Task: Reading the text group reading and note taking Standards: ELACC7RI1, ELACC7RI5, ELACC7RI7, ELACC7SL1, ELACC7SL2, ELACC7W9

    15. Inference/Theme • Inference • Students take notes on Inferencing using Cornell Notes • The Learning Toolbox - Cornell Notes • Alternate Text to use for Inference/Reading Comprehension • Jackie Robinson text

    16. Possible Vocabulary for Chapter 1-2 • Chapter 1: confrontation (3), segregation (3), menial (5), prestigious (5), earmarked (5), Klan (6), disciplinarian (6), regimented (6), unwieldy (6), nonnegotiable (7), sulked (7), mischievous (9), integrity (9), aggravation (10), unassuming (11), flustered (16), enviable (17), doted (17), gravitate (18), prim (19), reconvened (20) • Chapter 2: tranquil (23), perplexing (23), atrocities (24), naivete (24), hostile (24), inferior (25), Jim Crow Laws (25), status quo (25), accustomed (27), impenetrable (28), demeanor (29), detrimental (31), denoting (31), proponents (32), devoured (33), malapropisms (35), mezzanine (36)

    17. Guided Reading of Chapter 1-2 • Consider the author’s title choice for Chapter 2, “Halfway in and Halfway out.” What evidence does the author use as clues? How is this considered an example of inference?

    18. Essential Question: What techniques can I use to comprehend what I read? Task: Reading the text group reading and note taking Standards: ELACC7RI1, ELACC7RI7, ELACC7SL1, ELACC7SL1, ELACC7SL2, ELACC7W9

    19. Symbolism • Symbolism • Definition: The practice of representing things by means of symbols or of attributing symbolic meanings or significance to objects, events, or relationships. • Cornell Notes can be used to take notes

    20. Possible Vocabulary for Chapters 3-4 • Chapter 3: instilled (42), bowels (44), precocious (46), somber (49), dietitian (52) • Chapter 4: advocate (55), unfathomable (57), commotion (57)

    21. Guided Reading Chapter 3 • Chapter 3: Students should specify author’s central/main ideas and how the individual sections of the chapter contribute to the whole (Sequencing graphic organizer or Flow Map)

    22. Homework • Read Chapter 4. Take notes on symbolism found in this chapter. What symbols do you find and what do they represent?

    23. Essential Question: What techniques can I use to comprehend what I read? Task: Reading the text group reading and note taking Standards: ELACC7RI1, ELACC7RI7, ELACC7SL1, ELACC7SL1, ELACC7SL2, ELACC7W9

    24. Logical Appeal vs. Emotional Appeal We all need a little support now and then and so does a point of view. As a critical reader, you should always look at how well a writer supports his/her point of view in a persuasive piece of writing. • Logical Appeal: using reasons, statistics, facts, evidence to support their ideas. • Emotional Appeal: capture the reader’s heart with an emotion

    25. Compare/Contrast Text to a Video • Reread MLK’s “I have a dream speech” in Chapter 1 and the conclusion in Chapter 3. • I Have A Dream Speech text • Play video of the actual speech • I Have a Dream video • Pay close attention to the expressionism in his voice in speed, volume, and diction in the video. • Compare and Contrast the speech to the video representation (Venn Diagram or Double Bubble Map)

    26. Compare/Contrast Text to Text • Read John F. Kennedy’s speech • John F. Kennedy's Speech • Compare and Contrast the, “I Have a Dream speech,” to JFK’s Speech using Venn Diagram or Double Bubble Map.

    27. Reflection (40% Grade) • First paragraph: Introduction Introduce what your reflection is about • Last sentence of Intro : Thesis Statement • Body Paragraph: Similarities between “I Have a Dream” and “Civil Rights Address.” • Body Paragraph: Differences between “I Have a Dream” and “Civil Rights Address.” • Last Paragraph: Conclusion: Ist sentence: Restate your thesis, then Summary of all of your main ideas Last sentence: Why is JFK’s speech not as memorable as the speech made by MLK?

    28. There are many similarities and differences between John F. Kennedy’s ,“Civil Right’s Address,” and Martin Luther King Jr.’s, “I Have a Dream Speech.” These speeches were given during the civil rights movement. They were meant to give equality to all men. Also, Dr. King’s speech was more memorable then President Kennedy’s.______________Thesis______________________________________ ___________________Topic Sentence_______________________________ Both Dr. King and President Kennedy used repetition to get their point across. They both wanted freedom for “Negroes.” Both of them mentioned that “100 years after slavery has ended Negroes are still not free.” These similarities affect how the speeches came across. _________________Topic Sentence_______________________________ Kennedy’s was monotone, low, and didn’t grab the reader as well as Dr. King’s intense, determined, and stern tone. Dr. King’s speech had an emotional appeal, it pulled your emotions, while John F. Kennedy was logical appeal and stated facts. Martin Luther King Jr. repeated phrases that mattered like “let freedom ring” and Kennedy repeated not as important phrases like “it ought to be possible.” _________________Restate your thesis___________________________ They both had many similarities, for instance, they both used repeated phrases for emphasis. They also had some difference like Dr. King used emotional appeal and the president had a logical appeal. What made Dr. King’s speech more memorable was that he had an emotional appeal and it was faster, loud, and determined. B. Still and H. Cobb

    29. Essential Question: How does my choice of words impact my writing and my readers? • Task: The importance of word choice • Standards: ELACC7RI5, ELACC7L5, ELACC7L6

    30. Think, Pair, Share • In pairs, share your homework from Chapter 4, what did your partner find for symbolism in the chapter?

    31. Lift Every Voice and Sing (Youtube) • Using “Lift Every Voice and Sing,” by James Weldon Johnson, review figurative language in a text. • Text: (preview before use with students) http://www.poets.org/viewmedia.php/prmMID/15588 • How is figurative language used in a nonfiction text and how it compares to that found in literary text such as poetry. In Chapter 5, “Life Is but a Vapor,” as an example and have students determine what the author means by using this metaphor.

    32. Possible Vocabulary for Chapters 5,6,7 • Chapter 5: entombed (65), dismembered (66), embedded (66), woe (67), reverence (68), volatility (68), fathom (68), holocaust (69), engulfed (72), incomprehensible (72), hover (72), indignation (73), depravity (73), pivotal (73), pervasive (74), condemned (74) • Chapter 6: undemocratic (75), hypocrisy (75), unrelentingly (75), eulogy (76), mourners (76), clergy (76), unoffending (77), perpetrated (77), humanity (77), martyred (77), crusade (77), dignity (77), irrevocably (77), seclusion (78), redemptive (78), aristocracy (78), • Chapter 7: impetus (81), epitomized (81), retaliate (81), brood (83), permeated (83), yearned (83), adamant (86), memorandum (88), stifle (88), injustice (89), unconscionable (91), supremacy (91), wanton (91), carbine (91), democracy (92), solace (92)

    33. Allusion • An allusion is a literary device that stimulates ideas, associations, and extra information in the reader’s mind with only a word or two. • Allusion means “reference” • The difficulty with allusion is being familiar with all of the hidden meaning hidden behind the words • Allusions are commonly made by the Bible, nursery rhymes, myths, famous fictional, or historical characters.

    34. Examples of Allusion Allusions in writing help the reader to visualize what's happening by evoking a mental picture. But the reader must be aware of the allusion and must be familiar with what it alludes to. Allusions are commonly made to the Bible, nursery rhymes, myths, famous fictional or historical characters or events, and Shakespeare. "As the cave's roof collapsed, he was swallowed up in the dust like Jonah, and only his frantic scrabbling behind a wall of rock indicated that there was anyone still alive".The allusion in the sentence above is to Jonah. The reader is expected to recognize the reference to Jonah and the whale, which should evoke an image of being 'swallowed alive' ... in this case, behind a wall of dust and rock.

    35. Examples of Allusion "Christy didn't like to spend money. She was no Scrooge, but she seldom purchased anything except the bare necessities".Did you spot the allusion to Scrooge? That name should bring to mind an image of someone who 'pinches pennies' and hoards money with a passion. But the allusion only works if the reader is familiar with Charles Dickens' story 'A Christmas Carol'. • In general, the use of allusions by an author shows an expectation that the reader is familiar with the references made, otherwise the effect is lost. A piece of writing with many allusions (some of which may be very obscure) will be very rich with evoked images, but will do nothing for a reader who is not well-read.

    36. Examples of Allusion • See if you can spot the allusions in this paragraph: "Marty's presence at the dance was definitely a 'Catch 22' situation; if he talked to Cindy she'd be mad at him, but if he ignored her there'd be hell to pay. His anger bubbled to the surface. He realized that by coming to the dance he had brought his problems with him like a Trojan Horse, and he could only hope he would be able to keep them bottled up".

    37. Answer • The first allusion is to the novel 'Catch 22' by Joseph Heller; this should suggest a situation where there is a problem with no right answer ... whatever you do will be wrong. If you have read Heller's novel, you know exactly how Marty is feeling!The second reference is to the Trojan Horse from Virgil's Aeneid, which chronicles the Greeks conquering Troy by giving a gift of a horse to their enemies and filling the belly of the horse with warriors. A vivid image ... if you recognize it.There is also a reference to 'hell', which evokes images from the Bible of something definitely unpleasant. Finally, there is a very subtle reference to 'bottling up' problems, which might suggest an image of tightly containing something, although there is no direct connection to anything.

    38. Life is but a Vapor • What type of figurative language is the title of Chapter 5? • What page is the biblical allusion in Chapter 5? • What other similes and metaphors besides the title are found in Chapter 5? • Why did this event cause Carolyn to start to worry about dying because of her skin color? • What did Carolyn’s inner voice tell her? How does her inner voice change? (Preview Questions, then Read Chapter 5)

    39. Homework • Read Chapters 6 and 7 and pick out 10 unknown words

    40. Essential Question: How do I make the reasoning in my arguments sound and relevant? • Task: Tracing and evaluating arguments • Standards: ELACC7RI8, ELACC7W1, ELACC7W9

    41. Possible Vocabulary Chapters 8, 9, 10 • Chapter 8: lynch (93), whim (93), ominous (93), inferiority (93), distort (93), degenerating (93), misshapen (94), inflicted (95), grotesque (95), carcass (95), plight (96), exhumed (98), circumvent (100), opposition (100), intensified (101), smoldering (101), contradiction (104), libel (104), savages (104), rabble-rousing (105), epitome (106) • Chapter 9: abyss (109), tyranny (110), gauntlet (110), disembark (114), reprimand (114), oratory (119), pulpit (120), humility (120), resonated (121), imprisonment (124), infiltrators (125), consensus (127), diligently (128) • Chapter 10: inevitably (129), negotiation (129), disperse (130), escalated (131), paddy wagons (132), taut (133), pummeling (133), composure (135), wrath (135), trivial (135), forbade (136)

    42. Guided Reading Chapter 8 • Read Chapter 8 • Video about Emmitt Till (4.00) • Life and Death of Emmitt Till

    43. Guided Reading using Dr. King’s “Letter to Birmingham” pg102-103 & 116-118 • In "Letter from Birmingham Jail," Martin Luther King, Jr., uses multiple strategies to convince his reader of his points about segregation. • 1. Find two places in the "Letter" that seem persuasive to you. Copy the sentences/passages. • 2. Explain how King's writing works to persuade, in your 2 examples? Is it Emotional Appeal, Repetition of words for emphasis, Facts to support opinion, word choice, expressionism etc? • 3. What is the stated problem in the “Letter” ? • 4. What is the opponent’s (White) position? What is MLK’s position?

    44. Response Letter 40% • Write a response to Dr. King’s Letter. Base your letter on your knowledge of the issues that Dr. King has stated. What will you encourage him to do? Would you stay the course and continue to fight or leave Birmingham as soon as he is released from jail? What evidence from the text will you use to support your reasoning? • Class Discussion: Class discussion of the justice system and desegregation

    45. Homework: Read Chapter 9-10 • Read Chapter 9 and 10, as done with Chapter 1, take notes regarding the central/main ideas of this chapter. Document their development with specific statements by the author. • Preview “Bull Connor” before reading Chapter 10 Segregation at All Costs: Bull Connor and the Civil Rights Movement - YouTube • On page 126 in Chapter 9, there is reference to the music being played in the church, “the freedom songs were playing a vital role in our struggle.” It’s not in the plans, but playing a clip of music would be a great opening for a lesson. • Songs Of The Civil Rights Movement : NPR

    46. Essential Question • How does the author’s choice of words impact my understanding? • Task: The importance of word choice • Standards: ELACC7RI5, ELACC7L5, ELACC7L6

    47. Guided Reading Chapter 11-12 • Cornell Notes on Chapter 11-12

    48. Chapter 12 George Wallace

    49. Timeline of George Wallace’s Life • Alabama Department of Archives and History: Alabama Governors--George C. Wallace • Chapter 12 Speech of JFK: United Streaming • President Kennedy Civil Rights Address June 15, 1963