Introduction End term review • Aim • Give feedback on effectiveness of project implementation. • Extent to which the initiative has achieved its objectives. • Objective • Determine impact of the UBI in contributing to a participatory, peaceful, free and fair general election in March 2013. • Scope • All 47 counties
Background • Uraia Trust • Successor to NCEP • Aim provide technical and financial support to CSOs • Uchaguzi Bora Initiative • 18 month program to build a critical mass of citizens working for participatory, peaceful, free and fair general election • Use promise, opportunities, values, and ethos envisaged by Kenya’s Constitution as basis and framework for ensuring the credibility of 2013 elections
Objective of UBI • Assess the extent to which the Initiative achieved its objectives in relation to: • Providing effective quality civic and voter education to Kenyan citizens. • Facilitating citizen engagement in the electoral, political and governance process. • Facilitating institutional and democratic transformation internally, and with other actors. • Responding to emerging trends in the operating environment. • To assess the relevance, effectiveness and efficiency of strategies and approaches used in: • Providing effective quality civic and voter education, and • Facilitating civic engagements.
Objective of UBI –Cont. c). Assess overall impact of the UBI on the target groups, especially in relation to:- • Increased knowledge and understanding of the constitution and electoral issues. • Fostering and expanding citizen participation in the political and governance process. • Fostering peaceful coexistence of communities and nationhood. • Vetting of leaders based on leadership and integrity criteria. • Strengthening and supporting CSOs to respond to emerging electoral related issues at county and national level. • Entrenching constitutionalism in the electioneering process. • Increasing transparency and accountability in the electoral process • Enhancing credibility in the judicial system to achieve participatory, peaceful, free and fair elections.
End term evaluation • Methodology- qualitative and quantitative • desk review of key documents; • semi structured key informant interviews • focus group discussions (FGDs) with target groups; • structured questionnaire conducted face-to-faces • 95% confidence level • sample size of 5021 citizens • margin of error (confidence interval) of 1.4%.
Evaluation Methodology QUALITATIVE Focus group discussions (FGDs) Adult Kenyans 33 FGDs In-depth interviews (IDIs) IPs Minority groups Donors State actors Non- state actors 34 IDIs QUANTITATIVE Face to face interviews Proportionate to population sampling Cluster sampling to insure inclusion of PWDs, minority groups and marginalized communities Sample: 5021 with adult Kenyans Three Tier Approach LITERATURE REVIEW Secondary data • Internal information • External sources • sample size of 5021 citizens • 95% confidence level • margin of error (confidence interval) of 1.4%.
UBi worked with Implementing Partners (IPs) to deliver civic and voter education at the counties level The support UBI provided to IPs was training, education materials and funding Regional coordinators were put in place to ensure smooth operation of the project Funding was released late by some donors and this affected early disbursement to IPs Programmatic issues Coordination of UBI Donors State Actors Non-state Actors Uraia through UBI Consortia Implementing Partners Citizens/Raia
Demographic distribution: 66% youth (18 to 35 years) 6% over 55 With ID 94% of total sample 96% of the 25-35 and 46-55 age groupsNo ID 43% urban and rural 39% applied and awaitingNo ID 22% had recently lost itNo ID 26% rural and 16% urban just attained age of 18 Sample Analyzed by Age Group Gender, PWDs and Marginalized Groups Scope
Providing Effective and Quality Civic and Voter Education to Kenyans • Awareness by areas • Urban 73% • Rural 71% • Highest Awareness • Elgeyo Marakwet 92% • Narok 89% • Mandera 87% • Kisumu 87% • Kisii 87% • Lowest Awareness • Makueni 38% • Samburu 43% • Kwale 44% • Taita Taveta 48% 14.4 million 11.2 Million 10.8 million 3.8 million
Providing Effective and Quality Civic and Voter Education to Kenyans 4,400,000 adult Kenyans
Facilitating Citizen Engagement in the Electoral, Political and Governance Process
Vetting of Leaders for Leadership and Integrity Factors guiding choice of leader: integrity, the political party and political manifesto. Factors not considered important in choice: past record, religion, education and whether the person is transparent in leadership style. Those that ought to be barred from contesting: convicted in a court of law and those not declaring their wealth “Because we have seen some of the leaders being taken to court in terms of accountability of they misused CDF money” Tharaka Nithii youth
Vetting of Leaders for Leadership and Integrity – practice20% reported that they had participated in vetting of leaders by attending public debates, calling in during a talk show and/or carried out their own research on the candidate. A knowledge gap exists on ‘ways in which to vet leaders’ and Uraia should address this gap as it will improve the civic engagement
Facilitating Institutional and Democratic Transformation Internally and with Other Actors
Strengthening and Supporting CSOs Internally: Recruitment and training of project staff Five senior staff and two implementing staff Implementing Partners • Pre-award workshops were held for 47 organizations • Trainer of trainers workshop • Production of IEC materials (posters and pamphlets) KIE • Supported development of primary and secondary school civic education curriculum. • Trained 400 curriculum developers • Provided technical support to review the civic education materials developed. Ahadi Kenya • Vet aspirants within the Nairobi county with focus on Women Leadership
Strengthening and Supporting CSOs – Cont. K-NICE • Participated In The Evaluation Of Proposals And Identification Of Non-state Actors To Participate In K-nice's Second Round Of Implementation From The Second Call. Legislative Agenda • Through its support and participation in the development of bills for assent in the legislature. • Reviewing the right to petition parliament bill convened by the cic. • Participated in the cic workshop to interrogate modalities of citizen participation Cultural Workers and Artists • Development of media content and messages. • Training of cultural workers on the provisions of the constitution • Implementing partners Media • Dissemination activities with nation media group's both Q TV and Q FM • Weekly radio and TV programme on kamusi ya changamka a • Fact sheets/infomercials
Responding to Emerging Trends • Civic education emphasized the need to address any grievances arising from the electioneering process in the court of law as opposed to taking to the streets • Capability of civil society and IPs enhances to forecast, pre-empt, and/or manage the kind of crisis. • UBI had not anticipated that the hate speech will shift from verbal and telephone communication to the social media. • However, once this shift was identified, efforts were put to ensure the hate speech through social media was minimized and did not go viral. “We benefited from RRI at two levels one we had the incident in Mathare where we had some violence towards the end of last year and beginning of this year. So I remember the organization that was working in Mathare and works in informal settlements and another organization in Kenya slums also came to us and wanted to do some violence preventive and peace building work, in relation to elections so we referred to Uraia we got some funding and we were able to do some assessment of the situation; what had happened, who is there, who is doing what and then to design some community dialogue which we did before and after elections and I think we were quite satisfied with the efforts which led to very minimal violence in Mathare.” KII consortia
To assess the relevance, effectiveness and efficiency of the strategies and approaches used
Perceived Quality of Civic Education 0=Very Poor Quality 5=Very high quality
77% optimistic that the IEBC is capable of managing free and fair elections Why don’t you consider them peaceful? Didn’t understand voting process, experienced violence, election related tension (40%, 33% and 20%) Why don’t you consider them participatory? some citizens did not vote, some names were missing in voter register, some views and opinions of Kenyans were not taken into consideration (53%, 23% and 11% ). Why don’t you consider them free and fair? election problems, voter tallying marred by a lot of rigging, results contested in courts eg supreme court, there were complaints from citizens and various aspirants (33 %, 22%, 15% and 13% respectively) What challenges were faced? Important: low literacy levels (53%), ethnic differences (42%), rigging (36%), voter buying (34%), corruption in government (33%), and interference with the electoral body (32%), Not Important: religious differences (54%), election violence (42%), voter intimidation (33%) and lack of transparence in vote tallying (31%) “According to me 2013 elections were free and fair because no one was denied to vote despite the challenges that faced IEBC and that is why you find that the tallying process had no problem ” Mwingi men
“There were no incidences of violence”- Garsen women “Tension is still there. People have just kept quiet. It will erupt one day” Eldoret women What would cause a repeat of violence? Tribalism/ethnicity, discrimination (35%) hate speech/incitement (23%) unfair elections/rigging /poor tallying (19%) Peaceful elections
Disconnect between belief and actual practice in ensuring peaceful elections Whose role is it to ensure peace? Belief Whose role is it to ensure peace? Practice
Credibility of various courts of the judiciary increased with their seniority. Most credible: Supreme Court 22% magistrates’ court at 8%. Least credible:S upreme Court 12%. Extreme perception of supreme court. “Sometime ago if you were taking someone with money to the court then that case goes nowhere but right now, we can see the changes in our judicial system, the cases are handled quickly”- Kisauni youth “To me I will say it was credible. They really did their best on the presidential elections, it read the mood of the country and maintained peace despite the challenges it faced” Mwingi men “Most of them are easily corrupted”- Lagdera women “Some judges’ still take bribes”- Moyale women “The constitution states that if we have election disagreements then we go to the courts and the verdict of the Supreme Court is final, so it provided a platform” Makadara youth “To me I will say it was credible. They (judiciary) really did their best on the presidential elections, it read the mood of the country and maintained peace despite the challenges it faced” Mwingi men
High recall: cohesion and national reconciliation “one nation/unity” Low recall: messages targeting ethnicity, fighting and forgiveness “I think in all those media they told Kenyans that we have to vote peacefully voting is not the one to break us, I think every information that was going down there was keep peace, vote peace, maintain peace. They were also talking about tolerance especially because we were talking about Kenya being a diverse country, talking about tolerating each other during that time, you might be having different views politically but we should tolerate each other” - Nyeri youth
responsibility of ensuring free and fair elections believed Mostly to belong to the IEBC, and the voter (69 and 60%). Least to civil society and international community (8 and 5%}
The Constitution Self rating of their knowledge and source
The Constitution Majority (44%) self rated level of knowledge “average” , good, very good (22% and 10%) Sources of knowledge were mostly from media, materials and friends “Yes I have because I read the constitution and I keep on reading it so I have information to defend it.” Turkana men “We understand a little bit. We were given the books but we have not gone through them thoroughly” “We have not been told about constitution”- Bomet women “Not enough because the constitution was made in Nairobi and they have never come to the grassroots to create awareness to us and we even don’t have the booklets and we were also not taught about it” Laisamis youth “No I know very little about the constitution, I don’t think I can defend it” KII Minority group Poor knowledge of constitutional provisions regarding electioneering Governor position most known Specific message most recalled is on gender equality
A significant proportion had not heard of or had no idea of the roles of the NCIC or TJRC (45 and 38% respectively).Devolution was mainly associated with decentralization of power and sharing national resourcesHigh expectations of devolved government with almost half of the respondents (45%) recalling specific messages Constitutional Commissions Devolution
In regard to implementing the constitution, are we headed in the right direction? • Yes (44%) • devolved government being in place (21%), I • implementation of the constitution by the president/positive administration (17%), • equal opportunities, accessible services and development (16%) • sustained peace (13%). • no (22% ) • high cost of consumer goods ( 21%), • lack of unity among leaders ( 16%), • lack of implementing the constitution (16%), insecurity ( 15%) • nothing so far had been done ( 14%). • don’t know (34%)
Fostering and Expanding Citizen Participation in the political and Governance Process • County Citizen Participatory Forums for vetting of leaders in Siaya, Lamu, Taita Taveta, Kilifi, Makueni. • eg Siaya County, some disqualified, direct nominees rejected • Establishment of conflict response and monitoring units • Increased participation of the youth in electoral and political/governance processes. • 90% of youth voted • mock elections conducted just prior to the actual elections • public interest litigations • case against MPs refusal to pay taxes, • Leadership and Integrity case against current president and the deputy president • presidential petition to the Supreme Court. “The level of engagement went down compared to the previous election. This is because people lost faith with the electoral body and fear of what happened in 2007 and the youths were being discriminated politically” Kisumu women “Most of the youths did not participate in 2013 compared to 2007 general elections because of lack of IDs and intimidation by the government” Kakamega men “For pastoralists it ( engagement) went up because the IEBC had the mobile registration and voting units” Moyale men
Women leadership • Gender provision in the constitution recalled by most • 75.8% agree that the socio cultural values have played a significant role in stifling the woman’s leadership ambition • patriarchal society that is not ready for a woman president; only 38% of Kenyans said they can vote in a woman president. “We got information on how to defend and protect your rights, gender balance like a third of women should be included on elective posts” Garrisa Men “There are NGO’s that help women by giving them capacity building by encouraging them to participate in elections. The NGO’s like World Vision, SIFA and Red Cross helping groups that have gender balance” Moyale men • The program was successful in communicating constitutional provisions regarding women • There seemed to be hindrance of influencing traditional perceptions and attitudes to allow women leadership to emerge • barriers of translating knowledge to perceptions and attitudes and finally to practice in respect to women leadership
Outcomes (write conclusions) • Increase in number of people embracing the new culture within the new Constitution • Empowerment of citizens in exercising their rights and responsibilities in the electoral process and increased engagement • Increased Participation of citizen’s in the electoral process • Increased transparency and accountability in the electoral process. • Increased inter ethnic tolerance among different communities
Impact Co-Existence of Communities and Nationhood Had impact • “People came together and realized the importance of peaceful voting and staying together as one community” KII Nyanza • “There is peace because wananchi did not listen to the politicians who incite them to fight after they lose elections, but they followed their own voice and stayed in peace with each other”Garissa men • “Yes. Because of security and civic education for people to get enlightened, people are educated on the importance of peace” Lagderawomen Limited impact • “In terms of co-existence as Kenyans, I think we have 20 more steps to go and UBI was one and half step. I think it needs more than UBI to reach to that co-existence that is up to my 20 steps” KII consortia • “No. The government was just forming commissions to make money and these commissioners are not going to the grassroots to the communities affected. People have bottled up anger which might explode in future” Mwingiyouth
Leadership and Integrity Criteria, Transparency and Accountability Had impact • “Like now they are rating the performance of counties, the top 5 and the bottoms 5 so if you see that your county is not performing then you raise your socks. This can really help” Kisauni youth • “Before people used to vote for a candidate that came from their community but now we vote for someone who is going to deliver. People also look at the education level. Those things are removing the lines of ethnicity“ Turkana men Limited impact • “No one wants to know whether you are learned they look at the party and the tribe you come from” Eldoret women • “That can’t change because of tribalism”- Wajir women
Judicial Process With impact • We had faith in the Supreme Court”- Wajir youth • “For me I think the judicial system contributed to peace, a few years ago there was a problem of dispute resolution such that if a person who losses goes to court the one who won gave the other money. But now IEBC had created a dispute resolution mechanism, so the case goes to court” Nyeriyouth
Recommendations • Programme should be continuous in respect to the election cycle with enhancement and modification nearer the general elections. Avoid periods of high political temperature. • Develop a civic education program to sensitize leaders and citizenry on the realistic roles, responsibilities and expectations regarding devolution. • Translate print and electronic civic education materials into vernacular languages. • Encourage timely release of funding for desired outcomes and for effective and maximum impact. • Lobby for the State to provide funding for civic education as provided for in the constitution. • Work closely with government, to strengthen KNICE and IEBC the main state-actors in the electioneering process such the IEBC to provide leadership in vetting of aspirants. • Engage and strengthen political institutions such as political parties to enhance vetting of aspirants. • Some donor prefer bilateral funding relationship between governments as opposed to between donor governments and non-state actors. • UT could also involve the private sector in both program funding and implementation through PPPs. These have financial movers of the economy and have critical stake in regard to a peaceful election.
UT to enhance relationship with the state to influence the introduction of policies friendly to non-state actors eg education curriculum for long term civic education is achieved. • Partner with service providers such as SAFARICOM and AIRTEL for use of mobile-based technology innovative methods, such as ring tones and competitions. • Engage and strengthen the Judiciary so that the citizenry could have a positive perception in regard to their impartiality. • Widen the demographic scope to include specific players who represent youth, women and disabled category at policy levels in organizations. • UT to boost its organization staffing at the middle and lower levels particularly in media and communication. • Engage, involve and consulting partners in major decisions and activities as well as regular updates on progress of various activities. • Noting that the Constitution is very wide; • Have varieties of trainings not just lectures and books • Use group work and other participatory ways of learning and social media; • Have county-based trainings for the civic educators . Each county has its own issues • For Kenyans to develop a constitutional culture, have continuous engagement not “drop and go thing near election.