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Uses of Job Analysis Results. JOB ANALYSIS. CONNECT TASKS TO KSAs. IDENTIFY AND RATE JOB TASKS & KSAs. JOB DESCRIPTIONS. RECRUITMENT. APPLICATION BLANKS. PERFORMANCE TEST (HANDS-ON). DEVELOP SELECTION DEVICE (S). PAPER & PENCIL TESTS. SIMULATION TESTS. SITUATIONAL

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Uses of Job Analysis Results

JOB ANALYSIS

CONNECT TASKS

TO KSAs

IDENTIFY AND RATE JOB

TASKS & KSAs

JOB DESCRIPTIONS

RECRUITMENT

APPLICATION

BLANKS

PERFORMANCE

TEST (HANDS-ON)

DEVELOP SELECTION

DEVICE (S)

PAPER & PENCIL

TESTS

SIMULATION

TESTS

SITUATIONAL

INTERVIEW

IDENTIFY TRAINING NEEDS &

TECHNIQUES

DEVELOP

TRAINING

ASSESSMENTS

DEVELOP PERFORMANCE

EVALUATIONS

FEEDBACK AND

GOAL SETTING

CAREER

DEVELOPMENT

slide2

Job Analysis Background Research

  • Organizational charts (e.g., how the job is connected to other positions and where it is located in the overall company)
  • Communication with other job analysts.
  • 3) Existing job descriptions
  • Training manuals
  • Procedure and policy manuals
  • 6) O*NET, Occupational Outlook Handbook
slide3

A Job Analysis for Employment Selection

  • Identification of work activities and development of job task statements.
  • Develop a list of KSA’s necessary for adequate
  • performance of the job tasks.
  • Site observations to confirm and substantiate the above findings.
  • Evaluate job tasks and KSA statements to discern (and document) their job-relatedness.
  • Generate test items and evaluate their job-relatedness.
  • 6. Construct test instruments and assess their validity for purposes of selection/promotion decisions.
slide4

Basic Task Statement Components

1)What is the action being performed? (using an action verb)

- Make the verb as specific as possible. (More ambiguous words can be use if details are provide in the “how” section of the statement)

- Use present tense, plural form of the verb (e.g., Assists, Supervises)

2)To whom/what is the action directed? (the object, or receiver, of the action verb)

3) How is the action performed? (e.g., use of certain procedures, equipment, tools). The “how” is arguably the most crucial part of the task statement in that it directly relates to KSAs. It is often introduced with the word “by” and typically it consists of specific examples of representative list of procedures, equipment, tools, etc.

4) Why is the action being performed? (the purpose of the action). Often, it is preceded by words such as “in order to” or “so as to.” Be careful not to confuse the “why’ part of the statement with the “what” section

Example: (Why?) Ensures that equipment is working properly by performing measurements ….

(What?) Performs a variety of measurements (e.g., …) by using tools and devices such as …... in order to ensure the proper functioning of equipment

slide5

Sample Task Statement

What?To What/Whom

Inspects (visually or manually) parts, equipment

and systems such as valves, thermostats,

filters, motors, pumps, space heating equipment,

boilers, generators, incinerators, burner systems,

How?

air handling units, and piping systems by using

Calibration equipment hand tools, multi-meters,

and temperature and pressure gauges following

oral and written instructions (e.g., supervisor

Why?

directives, operator manuals) in order to comply

with maintenance requirements and determine

the cause of malfunctions.

slide6

Knowledge, Skills, & Abilities

  • Knowledge statements:
  • Possession of certain information (e.g., facts, procedures, techniques) relevant to the performance of a task or set of tasks
  • Avoid “modifiers” within a knowledge statement such as “basic,” “extensive,” “detailed”
  • Having a given knowledge does not guarantee competence in its application
  • Ability statements:
  • The competence to perform a action or behavior at the time in question (not the potential or aptitude to perform)
  • Avoid “modifiers” (e.g., extensive ability to properly measure …)
slide7

Selection of Subject Matter Experts (SMEs)

  • 1) On average, SMEs should have at least 6 months experience in the job category being analyzed (typically, it is recommended that temporary incumbants not be selected as SMEs)
  • 2) SMEs should represent all of the incumbants in a given job category. They should reflect the job category in terms of demographics (e.g., gender, race), size, and composition.
  • 3) Although the number of SMEs will vary due to the number of people in a given job category (& the avaliability of SMEs) in job categories consisting of less than 12 employees, at least 1/3 to 1/2 of the SMEs should be selected.
  • 4) Usually, SMEs need to be above average employees. It’s best to avoid choosing ones with a consistently poor record of job performance.
  • SMEs need to be selected and notified well in advance of a job analysis session (about 2-3 weeks).
  • It is crucial for “top” or upper-level management to stress the importance of the job analysis effort to SME’s and to provide realistic incentives for their participation.
slide8

Rating Job Task and KSA Statements

Task statements are rated on many dimensions including:

(1) the extent to which job incumbents perform the task,

(2) the percentage of time they spend on the task,

(3) the criticality of the work activity to overall job performance,

(4) the necessity of performance of the task upon entry to the job,

(5) the extent to which the ability to successfully perform the activity

distinguishes between superior and adequate performance,

(6) the extent of damage associated with not performing the task

adequately, and

(7) the percentage of incumbents in the job class who actually

perform this task.

KSA Statements are rated on three dimensions including:

(1) their importance to overall job performance,

(2) their necessity at entry to the job,

(3) the extent to which they differentiate levels of job performance.

slide9

Prescriptions for a Legally Defensibly Job Analysis

1) A job analysis must be performed on the exact job which the selection/promotion device is to be used

2) The analysis must be reduced to a written form (e.g., a job description)

3) The job analyst must be able to describe the procedures used to collect information

4) Data must be collected from several up-to-date sources

5) Data must be collected by a qualified job analyst

6) Data must be collected from a large enough sample of individual for the job in question

7) Tasks, duties, and activities must be identified and the relative degree of competency required must be specified

8) KSAs are mentioned most frequently as the type of information to be identified through a job analysis

9) Task specification is seen as a prerequisite to an acceptable job analysis

slide10

KIRKLAND V. DEPARTMENT OF CORRECTIONAL SERVICES (1974)

"Without such an analysis (job analysis) to single out the critical knowledge, skills and abilities required by the job, their importance relative importance to each other, and the level of proficiency demanded as to each attribute, a test constructor is aiming in the dark and can only hope to achieve job relatedness by blind luck”

The KSAs tested for must be critical to successful job performance

Portions of the exam should be accurately weighted to reflect the relative importance to the job of the attributes for which they test.

The level of difficulty of the exam material should match the level of difficulty of the job

slide11

Checklist Used to Match Selectors with

Job Requirements

Selection Method

H.R.

Employment

Interview

Work

Sample

Test

Medical

Exam &

Drug Test

Technical

Interview

Reference

Checks

Application

Form

Paper and

Pencil Test

Job Requirements

1. Ability to perform

calculations and understand

Charts, formulas and tables.

2. Ability to read blueprints.

3. Ability to troubleshoot

mechanical equipment.

4. Knowledge and use of safe

practices when handling

Materials and tools.

5. Ability to use & care for

hand and power tools to

maintain mechanical

Equipment.

6. Knowledge of basic

principles of hydraulic,

pneumatic, and compressed

air systems.

Previous work experience in

hazardous work environments

Relevant experience and

training in mechanical

maintenance.

Prerequisites

slide12

A Multiple Hurdle

Selection System

Application Form

Employment Interview

Rejection

Rejection

Rejection

Rejection

Rejection

Rejection

Job

Applicants

Paper-and-Pencil Test

Work Sample Test

Reference Checks

Medical Exam & Drug

Test