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Impact of global trade Ottoman Empire
Location and development of the Ottoman Empire • The Ottoman Empire emerged as a political and economic power following the conquest of Constantinople. • The Ottomans brought much of Muslim territory in Southwest Asia and North Africa under their rule.
Original location of the Ottoman Empire • Asia Minor
Expansion and extent of the Ottoman Empire • Southwest Asia • Southeastern Europe, Balkan Peninsula • North Africa • See your map pages A26-A27
Development of the Ottoman Empire • Capital at Constantinople renamed Istanbul • Islamic religion as a unifying force that accepted other religions • Trade in coffee and ceramics
Location of the Mughal Empire • North India • Descendants of the Mongols, the Muslim Mughal (Mogul) rulers established an empire in northern India. • The Mughal Empire traded with European nations. • Much of southern India remained independent and continued international trade
Contributions of Mughal rulers • Spread of Islam into India • Art and architecture: TajMahal • Establishment of European trading outposts • Influence of Indian textiles on British textile industry
Mughal Empire • What were the contributions of the Mughal emperors of India? • Spread Islam into India, built the TajMahal, established European trading outposts, and influenced the British textile industry
Trade with European nations • Portugal, England, and the Netherlands competed for the Indian Ocean trade by establishing coastal ports on the Indian sub-continent. • Southern India traded silks, spices, and gems
Mughal Empire • How did the Mughal Empire trade with European nations? • Established coastal ports on the Indian sub-continent • What did southern India trade? • Silks, spices, and gems
China • Creation of foreign enclaves to control trade • Imperial policy of controlling foreign influences and trade • Increase in European demand for Chinese goods (tea, porcelain)
Japan • Characterized by a powerless emperor controlled by a military leader (shogun) • Adopted policy of isolation to limit foreign influences
China and Japan • How did the Chinese and Japanese attempt to limit the influence of European merchants? • China created foreign enclaves (areas where foreigners were allowed) to control trade. The Japanese adopted a policy of isolationism. The emperor was powerless and controlled by a shogun.
Both Japan and China decided to limit trade with Europe during much of the 16th and17th centuries because the Japanese and the Chinese • Had few products to sell to the Europeans • Held religious beliefs that prohibited contact with foreigners • Thought European technology would hinder any effort to modernize • Believed they would receive no benefit from increased contact with the Europeans Answer is D.
Africa • African exports – (sent out of country) • Slaves (triangular trade) • Raw materials (ivory, gold) • African imports – (brought into country) • Manufactured goods from Europe, Asia, and the Americas • New food products (corn, peanuts)
Africa • The exportation of slaves and demand for imported goods began to alter traditional economic patterns in Africa.
Mercantilism and Commercial Revolution • Mercantilism: An economic practice adopted by European colonial powers in an effort to become self-sufficient; based on the theory that colonies existed for the benefit of the mother country.
Commercial Revolution • European maritime nations competed for overseas markets, colonies, and resources. • A new economic system emerged: • New money and banking systems were created. • Economic practices such as mercantilism evolved. • Colonial economies were limited by the economic needs of the mother country.
World Trade • Throughout history, trade has played an important role in establishing economic development and success. Listed below are elements of trade. • Products or resources sold to other countries are called exports. • Products or resources that come into a country are called imports. • A country may choose to focus on producing only one or two products or resources; this is called specialization.
Government and Economics • In order to fund public services, governments have to tax their people. Throughout history, taxation has been used to fund a number of projects, such as the Great Pyramids, the Great Wall of China, and waterworks in Rome. Taxes were not always paid by using currency. In ancient Egypt, farmers paid taxes by giving grain, among other farm products, to the pharaoh. The pharaoh would then store the grain for the empire to use at other times. Over time, currency evolved as a form of payment for goods or services.
Economic Systems • Traditional economy: Goods and services traded; money rarely exchanged. • Command or Planned economy: Production of goods and services is decided by central government, which owns most resources and businesses. • Market economy: production of goods and services is determined by supply and demand. • Mixed economy: A blend of command and market economies.