Conductive Polymer Nanocomposites Don Klosterman1 Chyi Shan Wang Brian Rice Khalid Lafdi 1 presenter University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) 300 College Park Dayton, OH 45469-0160 937-229-2528 (phone) 937-229-3433 (fax) Donald.Klosterman@udri.udayton.edu
UDRI: Who We Are • Not-for-profit research organization • More than 340 full-time engineers, scientists, technicians, and support staff • Synergistic teaming of full-time UDRI staff with UD faculty & students • Facilities located on the University of Dayton campus • Off-campus operations including on-site R&D contracts at Wright-Patterson AFB; Warner Robins ALC, Georgia; and in Ogden, Utah • In FY 2003 UDRI performed $53 M of sponsored R&D on 1100 accounts, totaling nearly $53 million (89% government, 11% industrial)
Conductive Polymers • Polymers are light weight, corrosion-resistant materials with a wide variety of industrial and military uses. • Three classes of polymer resins: • Thermoplastic (rigid, meltable, e.g. polyethylene) • Elastomer (stretchable, e.g. rubber) • Thermoset (rigid, not-meltable, e.g epoxy) • Polymers are generally NOT good conductors of electricity • However, electrical conductivity is desired in various polymer applications: • Electrostatic dischage, electostatic painting, EMI shielding,lightning strike protection, etc.
Melt Blending or High Shear Melt Compounding • Conductive powders: micro-sized metal filings, carbon black, etc. • Mixes well, but high loading is required Heated, high shear mixer Aluminum powder • Carbon nanofibers: • Highly conductive, but nonuniform dispersion and/or degraded aspect ratio Carbon nanofibers 10 mm 10 mm Prior Art Making Plastics Conductive
Polymer resin • Affordable carbon nanofibers • Solvent carbon nanofibers Filaments Coatings Thin or thick films Tubes Panels Composites Ambient Temperature Dispersion process Solvent removal UDRI Technology Description “Method of Forming Conductive Polymeric Nanocomposite Materials and Materials Produced Thereby” (U.S. Patent Application 2003/0039816 A1)
Advantages • 2-3 orders of magnitude more conductive than that produced by melt blending • Electronic percolation threshold < 1% • Use of affordable carbon nanofibers Large aspect ratio retained Uniform dispersion achieved
Applications & Markets Conductive Paints, Coatings, Caulks, Sealants, Adhesives, Sheets, Tubes, and Structural Components • Electromagnetic inerference (EMI) shielding • Electromagnetic pulse applications • Electrical signal transfer • Electrostatic painting of panels • Electrostatic discharge • Lightning Strike Protection • Electro-optical devices (photovoltaic cells) Industries: Space, Aerospace, Electronic, Automotive, Chemical
2000 ft2 pilot plant and new equipment being installed; scale-up studies underway at UDRI; expect 10-50 lb. batch capacity by spring 2004 Development Stage • Practiced regularly on laboratory scale at UDRI, ~ 1 lb. batches (polymer + nanofiber) • Data collected on wide variety of thermoplastic, elastomer, and thermoset polymers • Dry nanomaterial powder handling and storage • Nanoparticle dispersion and solvent removal • Preform fabrication: film extrusion and prepregging • Composite lay-up and filament winding • Composite molding processes, including VARTM, press, and autoclave • Post cure ovens • Extrusion and fiber spinning.
Exclusive patent license to Go To Market Strategy • Nanosperse is working with early adopter companies, resin suppliers, and nano materials manufacturers to develop applications • Pilot scale product, samples, and R&D support will be provided initially by UDRI and Materials Research Institute (Dayton, OH) through Nanosperse, LLC • Future production by Nanosperse according to customer requirements
Pilot plant production and R&D • Custom compounding • Standard Master Batch material • Production of films, fibers, plaques, prepregs • Curing • Testing Support Capability UDRI has a 40+ year history of polymer and composite R&D. We have a staff of full-time engineers and technicians; we are customer oriented and respect client confidentiality. The following capabilities will be available to industrial clients through Nanosperse: Contact Art Fritts at Nanosperse, 330-670-6849 firstname.lastname@example.org, www.nanosperse.com
Liquid and Paste Master Batch Material • Epoxy • Elastomers Master Batch concentrate material Letting-down master batch material • Molded nanocomposite plaques • Thin Film Composites Molded nano-composite plaque Currently Available Product Forms“By The Pound”, December 2003 • Custom compounded resin/nanofiber batches See us at the UDRI booth (#24) !!
Also Under Development • Thermally conductive nanocomposites • Structural reinforcement • Tailored functionalization of carbon nanofibers • Continuous fiber composites containing carbon nanofibers