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GREECE. The Geography of Greece. Led to the development of western civilization in Europe and America. Made great contributions to math, science, art, literature, philosophy, and government. Importance of the ancient Greek Civilization. City-States.

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Importance of the ancient greek civilization l.jpg

Led to the development of western civilization in Europe and America.

Made great contributions to math, science, art, literature, philosophy, and government

Importance of the ancient Greek Civilization


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City-States America.

Small individual political units and their surrounding areas.


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Cities were separated by mountains and bodies of water which kept them from uniting into one country.

Instead of one ruler for all city-states, the Greeks preferred having their own government in their own community.

Reasons for City-States


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The Polis kept them from uniting into one country.

  • A city built on 2 levels

  • Top level – Acropolis (high city)- temples of marble to the gods

  • Bottom flat level – Agora-walled main city with public building, theatre, etc.


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Govt. of the Polis kept them from uniting into one country.

  • 1st was a Monarchy

  • 2nd Aristocracy – land holding elite

  • 3rd oligarchy – power in hands of small class usually from business class or middle class


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Sparta and Athens kept them from uniting into one country.


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SPARTA kept them from uniting into one country.


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SPARTA kept them from uniting into one country.

Helots Messenians enslaved by the Spartans.


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Art, literature, and philosophy did not interest the Spartans

They were mainly interested in a military way of life which prepared boys and men for war.

City-State of Sparta


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The Southern part of Greece is called the Peloponnesus Spartans

Weak babies were abandoned to die because Spartans needed healthy strong warriors and mothers

Spartan women trained to strengthen their bodies too

Ultimate death was fighting in battle to save Sparta

Sparta=Southern part of Greece


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The 25,000 Spartans had to be ready to defend themselves against a revolt by 500,000 “helots”(People taken prisoner during wars and forced into slavery)

Helots farmed the soil and were required to give part of their crops to their master(this angered them and caused revolts)

Once a year Spartans declared war on the Helots to kill suspected troublemakers.

Sparta


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Spartan Culture against a revolt by 500,000 “helots”(People taken prisoner during wars and forced into slavery)

  • Boys trained for the army at age 7

  • Boys encouraged to steal

  • Instead of reading and writing, they learned to jump, run and use a weapon

  • People age 20-30 became cadets and policed the helots.


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ATHENS: against a revolt by 500,000 “helots”(People taken prisoner during wars and forced into slavery) Yesterday & Today


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Was a democracy against a revolt by 500,000 “helots”(People taken prisoner during wars and forced into slavery)

Assembly made laws-included all male citizens.

Assembly met once a week on a hillside and debated laws.

Male citizens took turn being govt. officials

Males served on juries.

Enjoyed freedom of speech.

Women, slaves and foreigners didn’t have the rights given to male citizens.

Athens


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Unlike Sparta, Athenians were very much interested in art, literature, philosophy, science, etc.

Public buildings were beautiful while homes were small and plain.

People gathered in the marketplace to discuss daily news.

Athenian Culture


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Athenian Athletics literature, philosophy, science, etc.

  • Sports were important to Athenians(developed strength and coordination)

  • Athletes competed from all over Greece in various sporting events at Olympia-(led to the present day Olympics)

  • Winners of Olympic events were heroes throughout Greece.


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POW’s were used as slaves. literature, philosophy, science, etc.

Women had different roles than men.

Could not be govt. officials or members of the Assembly

Were not taught to read or write.

Their place was in the home.

Temples were built to honor the gods but…(religion did not influence peoples lives as much as some other civilizations.)

Athenian civilization was more advanced than any other civilization on Earth.

Athens


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Athens is above literature, philosophy, science, etc.

  • The Peloponnesus

  • Ruled by Archons- Chief Officials

  • Famous archons were

  • Solon

  • Cleisthenes

  • Pisistratus


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Piraeus: Athens’ Port City literature, philosophy, science, etc.


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Early Athenian Lawgivers literature, philosophy, science, etc.

  • Draco

    • “draconian”

  • Solon

  • Cleisthenes

    • created the first democracy!


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Persian Wars: literature, philosophy, science, etc. 499 BCE – 480 BCE


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Persian Wars: literature, philosophy, science, etc.Famous Battles

  • Marathon (490 BCE)

    • 26 miles from Athens

    • Athenian forces defeated the Persians

  • Thermopylae (480 BCE)

    • 300 Spartans at the Mountain pass

  • Salamis (480 BCE)

    • Athenian navy victorious


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Persian Empire stretched from Egypt to Greece to India literature, philosophy, science, etc.

King Darius (and his son Xerxes) attacked Greece in an attempted takeover

Herodotus(first historian) wrote the history of the Persian wars

Persian Wars


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Larger Persian army (of Darius) loses to the smaller Athenian Army

Athenians had superior tactics

Story of Phiddipides gives us the modern day marathon race

Battle of Marathon


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75 miles from Athens-Spartan led Greek troops defended this narrow pass

Spartans heroically defend the pass-all Spartans die at hands of Persians

Heroics of Spartans give Athens time to prepare for next battle

Battle of Thermopylae


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Naval battle between Athens and Persia narrow pass

Persian ships are bigger and in greater numbers

Athenians draw them into small bay at Salamis

Smaller quicker Athenian ships destroy Persian navy

Battle of Salamis


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Persians try to divide the Greek states – fail narrow pass

Combined Greek forces of Athenian, Spartan and others defeat the Persians

End of War

Plataea


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Allow Athens to remain free and enjoy their Golden Age narrow pass

With their popularity and strong navy, Athenians begin to force other Greek states into her empire (Delian League)

Effects of Persian Wars


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Taxes from Delian League are used to rebuild Athens (Parthenon…)

Other Greek states object and start Peloponnesian War

Effects of Persian Wars


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Pericles (Parthenon…)

  • Athens become most powerful city-state under Pericles(460B.C. to 429B.C.)

  • Believed all men should take part in govt.

  • Issues decided on direct democracy

    • 6000 men sometimes in assembly

      Athens prospered in the age of Pericles


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Golden “Age of (Parthenon…)Pericles”:460 BCE – 429 BCE


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Great Athenian Philosophers (Parthenon…)

  • Socrates

    • Know thyself!

    • question everything

    • only the pursuit of goodnessbrings happiness.

  • Plato

    • The Academy

    • The world of the FORMS

    • The Republic philosopher-king


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Great Athenian Philosophers (Parthenon…)

  • Aristotle

    • The Lyceum

    • “Golden Mean” [everything inmoderation].

    • Logic.

    • Scientific method.


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Athens: The Arts & Sciences (Parthenon…)

  • DRAMA (tragedians):

    • Aeschylus

    • Sophocles

    • Euripides

  • THE SCIENCES:

    • Pythagoras

    • Democritus  all matter made up of small atoms.

    • Hippocrates  “Father of Medicine”


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Phidias’ (Parthenon…)Acropolis


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The Acropolis Today (Parthenon…)


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The (Parthenon…)Parthenon


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The (Parthenon…)Agora



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Olympia (Parthenon…)


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The Ancient Olympics: (Parthenon…)Athletes & Trainers


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Olympia: Temple to Hera (Parthenon…)


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The 2004 Olympics (Parthenon…)


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Peloponnesian Wars (Parthenon…)


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Peloponnesian War (Parthenon…)

War between Athens and Sparta

431-404 BCE


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Individual city-states sometimes fought wars against each other for control of Greece.

Fighting started when Sparta became concerned that Athens was trying to become the most powerful city-state in Greece

Causes of the Peloponnesian War


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Both Sparta and Athens had help from other city-states. other for control of Greece.

Sparta had a stronger army.

Athens had the best navy and most money

When the war began, a plague struck the city of Athens and killed ¼ of the people.

After 27 years of warfare, Athens’ navy was captured and the city was starved into surrender.

Important events in the war


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The war weakened the power of Greek city-states and led to them being captured by people from Macedonia.

Alexander the Great of Macedonia not only conquered Greece, but also took control of the Persian empire, Egypt, and other lands of the Near east.

Despite being conquered, Greek civilization and ideas continued to spread into other area of the Mediterranean world.

Results of the War


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Macedonia Under them being captured by people from Macedonia.Philip II


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"Hellenistic" them being captured by people from Macedonia.

Greece:

324 BCE - 100 BCE


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Alexander the Great them being captured by people from Macedonia.


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Alexander the Great’s Empire them being captured by people from Macedonia.


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Alexander the Great in Persia them being captured by people from Macedonia.


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The Hellenization of Asia them being captured by people from Macedonia.


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Pergamum: A Hellenistic City them being captured by people from Macedonia.


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The Economy of the Hellenistic World them being captured by people from Macedonia.


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Hellenistic Philosophers them being captured by people from Macedonia.

  • Cynics  Diogenes

    • ignore social conventions & avoid luxuries.

    • citizens of the world.

    • live a humble, simple life.

  • Epicurians  Epicurus

    • avoid pain & seek pleasure.

    • all excess leads to pain!

    • politics should be avoided.


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Hellenistic Philosophers them being captured by people from Macedonia.

  • Stoics  Zeno

    • nature is the expansion of divine will.

    • concept of natural law.

    • get involved in politics, not for personal gain, but toperform virtuous acts for the good of all.

    • true happiness is found ingreat achievements.


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Hellenism: The Arts & Sciences them being captured by people from Macedonia.

  • Scientists / Mathematicians:

    • Aristarchus  heliocentric theory.

    • Euclid  geometry

    • Archimedes  pulley

  • Hellenistic Art:

    • More realistic; less ideal than Hellenic art.

    • Showed individual emotions, wrinkles, and age!


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The Breakup of Alexander’s Empire them being captured by people from Macedonia.


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