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Exploring Marketing Research William G. Zikmund. Chapter 7: Secondary Data Research in a Digital Age . Data gathered and recorded by someone else prior to and for a purpose other than the current project Is often: Historical Already assembled Needs no access to subjects.

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Exploring marketing research william g zikmund

ExploringMarketing ResearchWilliam G. Zikmund

Chapter 7:

Secondary Data

Research in a Digital Age


Secondary data

Data gathered and recorded by someone else prior to and for a purpose other than the current project

Is often:

Historical

Already assembled

Needs no access to subjects

Secondary Data


Exploring marketing research william g zikmund

Advantages of Secondary Data a purpose other than the current project

  • Inexpensive

  • Obtained Rapidly

  • Information is not Otherwise Accessible


Government data is often free
Government data is often free a purpose other than the current project


Exploring marketing research william g zikmund

Disadvantages of Secondary Data a purpose other than the current project

  • Uncertain Accuracy

  • Data Not Consistent with Needs

  • Inappropriate Units of Measurement

  • Time Period Inappropriate (Dated)


Secondary data may be dated

Secondary Data may be Dated a purpose other than the current project

The Economic Census profiles the U.S. economy every 5 years, from the national to the local level.


Exploring marketing research william g zikmund

Evaluating Secondary Data a purpose other than the current project

Does the data help to

answer questions

set out in the

problem definition?

Applicability

to project

objectives

Does the data apply to

the time period of

interest?

Does the data apply to

the population of

interest?


Exploring marketing research william g zikmund

Evaluating Secondary Data (continued) a purpose other than the current project

Do the other terms

and variable

classifications

presented apply?

Applicability

to project

objectives

Are the units of

measurement

comparable?

If possible, go to the

original source of the

data?

Accuracy

of the data


Exploring marketing research william g zikmund

Is the cost of data a purpose other than the current project

acquisition worth it?

Accuracy

of the data

Is there a possibility

of bias?

Can the accuracy of

data collection be

verified?


Exploring marketing research william g zikmund

Objectives for Secondary Data Studies a purpose other than the current project

  • Fact Finding

  • Model Building

  • Data Based Marketing


Exploring marketing research william g zikmund

Common Research Objectives a purpose other than the current project

for Secondary Data Studies

Fact Finding - Identifying consumption patterns

- Tracking trends

Model building - Estimating market potential

- Forecasting sales

- Selecting trade areas and sites

Data Base Marketing - Development of Prospect Lists

- Enhancement of Customer Lists


Fact finding
Fact Finding a purpose other than the current project

  • Identify Consumer Behavior

  • Trend Analysis

  • Environmental Scanning


Model building

Market Potential a purpose other than the current project

Forecasting Sales

Analysis of Trade Areas

Model Building


Data based marketing

Practice of maintaining a customer data base a purpose other than the current project

Names

Addresses

Past purchases

Responses to past efforts

Data from numerous sources

Data Based Marketing


Internal data
Internal Data a purpose other than the current project

  • Internal and Proprietary data is more descriptive

  • Accounting information

  • Sales information

  • Backorders

  • Customer complaints


Data mining
Data Mining a purpose other than the current project

Dig through volumes of data to discover

Patterns about an organization's customers

And products.


External data

Government a purpose other than the current project

Newspapers

Journals

Trade Associations

Libraries

Internet

Vendors

Government Sources

Books and Periodicals

External Data


Popular addresses
Popular Addresses a purpose other than the current project


Exploring marketing research william g zikmund

Traditional Distribution a purpose other than the current project

Indirect Channel Using Intermediary

Information Producer

(Federal Government)

Library

(Storage of

government

documents

and books)

Company User


Exploring marketing research william g zikmund

Traditional Distribution a purpose other than the current project

Direct Channel

Information Producer

(Federal Government)

Company User


Exploring marketing research william g zikmund

Direct, Computerized Distribution Using Intermediary a purpose other than the current project

Information producer’s

(Just-in-time inventory partner)

computerized database

Company user


Exploring marketing research william g zikmund

Modern Distribution of Secondary Data a purpose other than the current project

Information producer B

(Grocery store-retail

scanner data)

Information producer C

(Audience research company-

television viewing data)

Information producer A

(Federal government-

census data)

Vendor/external

distributor

(Computerized database

integrating all three data

sources for any

geographic area)

Information producer A

(Federal government-

census data)


External data1

Created, recorded, or generated by an entity other than the researcher’s organization

Government

Trade associations

Newspapers and journals

External Data


External data2

Libraries researcher’s organization

The Internet

Vendors

Producers

Books and Periodicals

External Data


External data3

Government sources researcher’s organization

Media sources

Commercial sources

External Data


Government sources
Government Sources researcher’s organization


Commercial sources

Market share data companies like A.C. Nielsen provide information about sales volume and brand share over time

Demographic and census updates—many organizations supply census updates, in easy-to-use or custom formats

Commercial Sources


Commercial sources1

Attitude and public opinion research—syndicated services report the findings of opinion polls

Consumption and purchase behavior data

Advertising research—readership and audience data

Commercial Sources


Single source data

Diverse types of data offered from a single source report the findings of opinion polls

- e.g., television viewing and scanner purchase data

- e.g., Prizim and ClusterPlus

Single Source Data


Global secondary data

Typical limitations report the findings of opinion polls

Additional pitfalls

Unavailable

Questionable accuracy

Lack of standardized terminology

Global Secondary Data