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MD/HD CO 2 Reduction by Hybridization & WHR. Technology Impact on Emission Control Dr. Uwe Zink, Corning Incorporated Director, Emerging Industry Technology April 4, 2011. Agenda. CO 2 Context Hybridization Motivation Powertrain implication Aftertreatment design considerations

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md hd co 2 reduction by hybridization whr

MD/HD CO2 Reduction byHybridization & WHR

Technology Impact on Emission Control

Dr. Uwe Zink,

Corning Incorporated

Director, Emerging Industry Technology

April 4, 2011

agenda
Agenda
  • CO2 Context
  • Hybridization
    • Motivation
    • Powertrain implication
    • Aftertreatment design considerations
    • Technology sorting
  • Heat Energy Recovery Approaches in Industry
    • Rankine cycle considerations
  • Summary
slide4

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

2018

2019

2020

2021

2022

2023

2024

DoE SuperTruck

Vehicle fuel eco demo

ACEA: 20% reduction goal (*)

DoE: +50% freight efficiency

Prototype demo

DAG’s “Shaping Future Transportation” (*)

“Road to Emission Free Mobility (LD & HD)”(*)

CO2/Fuel Eco - Government / OE Initiatives

HD CO2/Fuel Consumption Reduction: Different approaches JP: Fuel consumption, EU: CO2 focus(?), EPA: GHG focus

JP: Fuel cons. -12% vs 2002

Tighter JP Regs (assumption)

Tighter EPA Regs

EPA CO2e (CO2; N2O, CH4 caps; BC)

New EU Regs CO2 (assumption)

(*): www.Daimler.com, MTZ 1-’09, http://www.cat.com/sd2009, http://www.deere.com/en_US/globalcitizenship/stewardship/metrics.html

slide5

-20%

Fuel consumption evolution in EuropeACEA’s Goal(*): 20% Fuel consumption reduction by 2020 –Assume vehicle

10 mpg per CCJ 3/31/10 quoting DTNA @ MATS

(*) MTZ 1-’09, Daimler SAE Gothenborg 9-’10

co 2 fuel consumptions measures aerodynamics vehicle weight engine tires drivetrain
CO2 & fuel consumptions measures-Aerodynamics, vehicle weight, engine, tires, drivetrain

Ref.: Technologies and Approaches to Reducing the Fuel Consumption of Medium- and Heavy-Duty Vehicles, April 2010; http://www.nap.edu/catalog/12845.html

slide7

Class 6-8 Hybrid Truck Production: Hybrid Trucks to Set to Account for 8 Percent of Total Truck Production by 2015 (Frost & Sullivan, HTUF 10/’09)

slide8
MD/HD-Vocational Applications are Targets for Hybridization High Potential for Braking Energy Recovery

Vehicle Type

5/07 Michigan Clean Fleet Conference

targeting combustion engine operation at optimum bsfc points
Targeting combustion engine operation at optimum BSFC points

Ref: Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle System Panel

slide11

Diesel Engine Operation

Steady State

Transient

“Hybridization”

Hybridization impact on conventional powertrain -Combustion engine selection (“downsized”) & operation (less transient”)

Ref: DTF 3-08 Volvo

combustion engine downsizing example mb citaro g
Conventional:

12l, OM 457 LA

Hybrid:

4.8l, OM 924 LA

Compensation for torque & power

4 wheel hub electric motors, ea. @

60 kW continuous

80 kW peak

OM 457 LA

1900

OM 924 LA

1500

800

OM 457 LA

400

1000 1400 1800 2200 rpm

OM 924 LA

Combustion Engine “Downsizing” -Example (MB Citaro G)

Mercedes Benz Website http://www.mercedes-benz.de

hils making its way into md hd homologation procedures
HILS – Making its way into MD/HD Homologation Procedures

J-MLIT at ACEA Mtg Dec.3, 2009: A Global Approach to Sustainable Freight Transport

outlook waste heat recovery in combination with hybrids
Outlook: Waste Heat Recovery in combination with Hybrids

“Integrated Powertrain and Vehicle Technologies for Fuel Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Reduction”, DDC, DEER 2009

a t impact of hybridization on freightliner m2
A/T Impact of Hybridization on Freightliner M2

DPF Regeneration Interval increases

Freightliner, HTUF 10/2009

a t impact of hybridization on freightliner m219
A/T Impact of Hybridization on Freightliner M2

DPF Regeneration Interval increases

Freightliner, HTUF 10/2009

slide20

Emissions are very low… aftertreatment likely not needed.

Series Electric Class 8 Truck & City Bus w/ Range Extender-Freightliner Columbia (Parker-Artisane-Capstone), ZEM (Italy)

Parker, HTUF 2010; http://zemplc.com/technology.php

slide21
LD Example (Prius III, 1.8l ICE) -Intermittent ICE Operation, Lower exhaust gas temps & aggressive catalyst heating

Aggressive Catalyst Heating in Prius

Umicore, 4/2010

slide23

Class 6-8 Hybrid Truck Production: Hybrid Trucks to Set to Account for 8 Percent of Total Truck Production by 2015 (Frost & Sullivan, HTUF 10/’09)

current offerings nafta
Current offerings (NAFTA)

http://www.afdc.energy.gov/afdc/vehicles/heavy/hybrid_systems

hybridization market triggers
Hybridization Market Triggers
  • Fuel prices -some anticipate $4++(US)
  • CO2 regs -getting into place
  • Tax incentives -key to mitigate
  • Cost reduction -significant effort needed
context engine based fuel economy levers

38.7%

Engine Hard/Software, NOx calibration,

A/T Efficiency

Stanton, Deer 2009

Context: Engine based fuel economy levers

Reduced pumping losses

-intake

-exhaust (e.g. A/T)

Heat Energy

Recovery

Energy Flow Chart @ B50 point of a 290kW engine, Behr, Wien 2009

bmw s teg in egr loop 4 cyl diesel engine

EGR Cooling

TEG

BMW’s TEG in EGR Loop4 cyl Diesel engine

Suggested to move to exhaust system location for higher recovery (500W rather than 100W on EGR)

Ref: BMW, 5th Emission Control, Dresden, 6/10

mechanical electrical turbocompounding extracting heat upstream of aftertreatment
Mechanical/Electrical Turbocompounding-extracting heat upstream of aftertreatment

DDC Mechanical Turbocompounder

Bowman Industries, SAE ComVec 2009

BSFC simulation data for from a “typical” heavy duty engine, >10ltrs and with 2010+ emissions compliance

iveco glider concept vehicle
Iveco Glider-Concept Vehicle
  • Condensor
  • Expander:Turbine
  • Boiler

Lastauto Omnibus 12/2010

r d ongoing for expander machines
R&D ongoing for expander machines
  • Turbine
    • High rpm speeds
  • Piston
    • e.g. Voith’s “Steam Expander”
      • 2 cylinder, ~0.75l displacement
  • Rotary/Sliding Vane
  • Axial piston rotary
  • Considerations:
    • Expansion ratio
    • Ability to handle wet vapor (X<1), i.e. two-phase flow with droplets
    • Working fluid compatibility
    • GWP
    • other
rankine working fluid candidates r245fa ethanol water water ethanol other
Rankine Working Fluid candidatesR245fa, Ethanol, Water, Water/Ethanol, other
  • Choice based upon:
  • Critical point
  • Decomposition temperature
  • Slope of saturated vapor line
  • Environmental/Safety aspects
  • other
working fluids considerations
Working fluids considerations
  • Chemical and physical characteristics
    • E.g. decomposition temperature
  • Achievable system pressure
    • cost for pumps, condensor, heat exchanger along with pressure level
  • Environmental considerations
    • GWP
slide39
Technologies emerging that will have an impact on aftertreatment design -> A/T industry needs to prepare for
  • Hybridization
    • ICE downsizing
    • Shift in operating points
    • Certification/Homologation procedures
  • Exhaust Heat Energy Recovery
    • New processes
    • Additional components
      • Weight
      • Space
      • Backpressure