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MOTIVATION. PHED 1027 February 26 th & 28th. Standard First Aid. March 1, 2 March 8, 9 Please contact Michelle Zurawski in the Ed Centre gym office MOTIVATION - What is it?. A drive that STARTS or MAINTAINS an activity

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PHED 1027

February 26th & 28th

standard first aid
Standard First Aid

March 1, 2

March 8, 9

Please contact Michelle Zurawski in the Ed Centre gym office

motivation what is it
MOTIVATION - What is it?
  • A drive that STARTS or MAINTAINS an activity
  • From the Latin movere, meaning “to move”
  • Psychological term used to explain the WHY of behaviour
sources of motivation

Instincts & drives – earliest theories

Social cognitions, perceptions, emotions – modern paradigm

Amotivation – absence of motivation


Extrinsic motivation – to receive reward or avoid punishment (external regulation)

Intrinsic motivation – to learn, accomplish tasks, and to experience sensations

Which is most powerful in PA settings?

motivation has a lot to do with the impact of rewards on self determination
Motivation has a lot to do with the impact of rewards on Self-Determination

Competence – e.g. medal

Control – e.g. Bribe

A highly intrinsically motivated individual is much more likely to sustain effort and performance over the long term (e.g. Exercise adherence)

how does motivation explain behaviour
How does MOTIVATION explain behaviour?

Many theories exist to explain motivation........

did you say theory
Did you say THEORY?????

Porter & Lawler’s Model

Vroom’s Expectancy Model

Bandura’s Self-Efficacy Theory

Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene

Maslow’s Needs Hierarchy

Adam’s Theory of Inequity

Personal Investment Theory

Theory of Planned Behaviour

Theory of Reasoned Action

Self Determination Theory

Transtheoretical Model

how do we make sense of all of these theories
How do we make sense of all of these theories?





Personal Investment

Outcomes of Personal Investment


Degree of effort depends upon one’s motivational state

Level of effort is related to the value placed upon the rewards

Value may be different for different individuals

  • Will the effort result in a reward?
    • Performance expectation or probability
    • Performance-reward relationship
  • Effort is maximized when an individual places a high value on the rewards, and when that person believes the effort-reward probability relationship is strong
  • Abilities & Traits
    • Traits – enduring, stable characteristics
    • Abilities – trainable qualities
  • Role Perception
    • Correct perceptions of one’s role are important

Rewards that suggest to the individual that he or she is highly competent enhance intrinsic motivation

Rewards suggesting that the recipient is no longer fully in control of the reasons for behaviour reduce intrinsic motivation (Carron et al., 2003)


Intrinsic Rewards

    • Sense of accomplishment
    • Achievement
    • Doing something positive for the community
    • Personal growth
  • Extrinsic
    • Externally administered, tangible
  • Receiving rewards affects the value placed upon them...

Depends upon the individual’s perception of whether the rewards are equitable

How does satisfaction affect subsequent effort and performance?

equity of rewards
  • Individual PERCEPTION of how fairly rewards are distributed
  • Performance is significantly impacted by the perceived equity of rewards
    • e.g. Comparing salaries and levels of performance on professional teams
    • This is significant in any organization – volunteer or professional
motivation as personal investment
  • Observed behaviours provide information about personal investment
    • Direction
    • Persistence
    • Continuing motivation
    • Intensity
    • Performance
personal investment
  • These patterns of behaviour indicate the degree to which a person is invested in the activity
    • Everybody is motivated to do something
    • Individuals distribute their time, talent, and energy as they choose

“Situations are easier to change than people” (Maehr & Braskamp, 1986)

How might this affect you as a coach, teacher, instructor?

outcomes of personal investment
Outcomes of Personal Investment


Personal Growth

Life Satisfaction

Are these important to sports organizations?

as a phe professional what will be your greatest challenge with clients
As a PHE Professional, what will be your greatest challenge with clients?

PE teacher


Personal Trainer


Fitness Instructor

Exercise Adherence

motivational strategies to enhance exercise adherence
Motivational Strategies to Enhance Exercise Adherence
  • Prompting
  • Contracting
  • Public reporting
  • Rewards
  • Feedback on progress
  • Goal setting
  • Social support
  • Focus on the experience
  • Focus on the process, not the outcome
for thursday
For Thursday.....

Read Chapter 8 (Organizational Justice)

Pg. 119-136

Answer #1 Interact

organizational justice



volleyball opportunity
Volleyball opportunity

Volleyball Officials Clinic

Saturday, March 15th & Sunday, March 16th

Ecole Secondaire Catholique Algonquin

10 AM-4 PM


Contact Mona Morton at 497-9774

Practical to follow March 29th or April 5th

  • We all have been recipients of demands for justice
    • “Barb, its not fair that some students got mini eggs and others didn’t”
  • We have all been in the position of demanding justice
    • I told the builder of my house that, since he replaced the defective windows for a neighbour, he should replace my defective windows
organizational justice1
Organizational justice
  • Ethical, legal, and appropriate business practices that are just and fair to all individuals involved in an organization
  • Why is organizational justice so important to PHE professionals?
    • Custodians
    • Socially sanctioned
    • Client / Employee satisfaction
    • Legal consequences
justice is all about perception
Justice is all about perception
  • How do clients/employees/workers in an organization judge their work situation – is it FAIR??
  • Justice perceptions are related to:
    • Job satisfaction
    • Job performance
    • Organizational commitment
    • Self-perceptions
think of a time you ve been unfairly treated at work
Think of a time you’ve been unfairly treated at work
  • Were you ever treated rudely or disrespectfully?
  • Were you up for a promotion / raise / job, and didn’t get it when you thought you should have?
  • Why was it unfair? How did you know?
    • How did you react? Did you take action? Why or why not?(
distributive justice
Distributive justice
  • Distributive justice considers the distribution of goods among members of society at a specific time, and on that basis, determines whether the state of affairs is acceptable.
          • (
distributive justice1
Distributive justice

Considers the concrete OUTCOMES of the distribution of goods to individuals or groups of individuals

what is to be distributed
WHAT is to be distributed?
  • Goods include income, opportunities, wealth
    • Equipment
    • Playing time
    • Uniforms
    • Feedback
    • Medical attention
    • Others???
to whom are the goods distributed
To whom are the goods distributed?




principle of equity
Principle of equity
  • Distribution of resources is based on contributions that members make to a group or organization
    • Effort
    • Ability (innate or achieved)
    • Performance
  • How should I have distributed mini-eggs based on the principle of equity?
equity of rewards remember
EQUITY of REWARDS – Remember?

Individual PERCEPTION of how fairly rewards are distributed

Performance is significantly impacted by the perceived equity of rewards

Did you compare your test mark with those of your classmates? Was your assessment fair?

if inequity is perceived what happens
If inequity is perceived, what happens?
  • For example, if an individual is underpaid:
    • Quit
    • Decreased output
    • Ask for a raise
    • “squealing”
    • Distort reality
principle of equality
Principle of equality
  • Resources are distributed equally to all members
    • Treatment
    • Results
    • Opportunity
  • How should I have distributed mini-eggs based on equality?
principle of need
Principle of need

Resources are distributed on the basis of the needs of individuals or teams

How should I have distributed mini-eggs based on need?


Procedural Justice – refers to the PROCESS that organizations use to distribute goods

  • Procedural justice is an intermediary stage
    • Procedures, guidelines, policies for making decisions
  • Example of procedural INJUSTICE
procedural justice
Procedural Justice
  • What are some things that lead to a procedure being seen as fair?
    • ‘Voice’ – getting a say in things
    • Consistency – across time and employees
    • Bias Suppression – avoid personal bias
    • Accuracy – procedure should be correct
    • Correctability – appeals mechanism
    • Ethicality – standards of ethics upheld

Interactional Justice – the manner in which decisions are communicated

    • Substance of the message (informational justice)
    • Tone of the message (interpersonal justice)
organizational justice2
Organizational justice:

Procedural Justice – PROCESS

Interactional Justice – COMMUNICATION

Distributive Justice - DECISION

interact 1
Interact #1

Were there occasions during your days in secondary school when you believed that the administrators were not just in distributing the school resources? What principles of organizational justice were violated? Discuss.

next week
Next week

Read Chapter 11 “Leadership”

Do Interact #1