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(MACDIS). WHEN AND HOW SHOULD U.S. MILITARY FORCES BE USED TO PROVIDE CONTROL DURING CIVIL DISORDER?. CONCEPT DOD GARDEN PLOT PLAN USJFCOM PLAN. CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT.

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slide2
WHEN AND HOW SHOULD U.S. MILITARY FORCES BE USED TO PROVIDE CONTROL DURING CIVIL DISORDER?
  • CONCEPT
  • DOD GARDEN PLOT PLAN
  • USJFCOM PLAN
slide3
CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT

Federal paratroopers escort African American pupils to Central High School in Little Rock, Ark. without trouble. 1,000 paratroopers had been called by President Eisenhower to restore order and escort nine black students safely to class. Sept. 26, 1957.

slide4
WATTS RIOTS

On Aug.11, 1965, six days of rioting began in the Watts section of Los Angeles. In the violence, 34 people were killed and 856 injured. Here, a National Guardsman escorts an elderly resident in the riot area.

slide5
1992 LOS ANGELES RIOTS

On the afternoon of 29 April 1992 the worst civil unrest since the riots of the 1960’s erupted in the streets of Los Angeles. Violence spread quickly and overwhelmed law enforcement authorities resulting in 44 dead, hundreds of injuries, and an estimated billion dollars worth of property damage.

slide6
1989 HURRICANE HUGO

Operation Hawkeye conducted on the island of St. Croix, US Virgin Islands - 20 September 1989 to 22 November 1989

Mission to XVIII Airborne Corps - "Deploy forces to the island of St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands to restore law and order and preserve public and private property in the aftermath of Hurricane Hugo"

Task Force Hawkeye consisted of XVIII Airborne Assault Command Post, elements of 1st Corps Support COSCOM, PSYOPS assets, counter-intelligence assets, aviation assets (3 OH-58's), HQS 16th MP Brigade, HQS 720th MP Battalion, 411th MP Company, 258th MP Company, and the 463rd MP Company.

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DEFINITION OF CIVIL DISTURBANCE

“Group acts of violence and disorder prejudicial to public law and order within the 50 states, District of Columbia, Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, U.S. possessions and territories, or any political subdivision thereof; includes all domestic conditions requiring the use of federal armed forces pursuant to the provisions of Chapter 15 of Title 10, United States Code.”

DOD Civil Disturbance Plan “Garden Plot”

local and state law enforcement overwhelmed
LOCAL AND STATE LAW ENFORCEMENT OVERWHELMED
  • Rioting
  • Violent Protests or Demonstrations
  • Illegal Assembly
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RESPONSIBILITIES

Local and County - commit law enforcement assets to gain control, disperse disobedient crowds, and restore law and order; ask for state assistance as needed

State - respond with state law enforcement assets and activate National Guard forces, as needed, to assist local and county law enforcement; request Federal assistance as needed

Federal - respond with federal law enforcement assets; advise the President

DOD - Respond to Presidential Executive Order with appropriate DOD assets to assist in the restoration of law and order

federal assistance for civil disturbances
FEDERAL ASSISTANCE FOR CIVIL DISTURBANCES
  • Department of Justice Leads
  • Civilian Federal Law Enforcement Primary
  • Federal Military Forces Support
legal considerations for civil disturbances
LEGAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR CIVIL DISTURBANCES
  • Posse Comitatus Act

(Section 1385 of Title 18, United States Code)

  • Insurrection Act

(Sections 331-334 of Title 10, United States Code)

slide12
DOD Directive 3025.12 - February 4, 1994

Military Assistance for Civil Disturbances (MACDIS)

  • Provides DOD policy for military assistance during civil disturbances
  • Names Secretary of the Army as DOD Executive Agent
  • Assigns CJCS and CINC planning and execution authority
  • Assigns Service coordination, planning, and support roles
garden plot applicability
Garden Plot Applicability
  • DoD Plan applies to:
    • Unified Commands
    • Military Services
    • DoD Agencies
    • DoD Components
civil disturbance plan garden plot
CIVIL DISTURBANCE PLAN (GARDEN PLOT)
  • Domestic Plan
  • Quick Reaction Force
  • Federal law enforcement has the lead
  • DOJ to provide policy guidance
  • Civil Defense Conditions
  • Rules of Engagement
  • Military forces under military C2
  • Operations controlled by JTF Headquarters
potential tasks
POTENTIAL TASKS
  • Restore Law and Order
  • Disperse Crowds
  • Employ Riot Control Agents
  • Establish Traffic Control Points
  • Cordon Off Areas
  • Serve as Security or Quick Reaction Force
garden plot force requirements
Garden Plot Force Requirements
  • Force Requirements:
    • JTF-250: Quick Reaction Force (QRF)
      • HQ from III or XVIII Corps
      • 3 Infantry Battalions with Support Elements
    • JTF-MDW: Headquarters
      • 3 Infantry Battalions with Support Elements
      • 2 MP Battalions
      • 1 Marine Battalion
      • 1 Infantry Battalion within MDW
      • 1 Marine Company within MDW
civil disturbance conditions
CIVIL DISTURBANCE CONDITIONS
  • DOMS Declares Condition
  • CIDCON
    • Five: Normal Preparedness
    • Four: Increased Monitoring/Analysis
    • Three: Increased Preparedness
    • Two: Deployment of Forces Possible
    • One: Deployment Order
slide18
ROE RESPONSIBILITIES
  • CJCS - Establishes SROE and delegates ROE for specific operation to Supported CINC
  • Supported CINC - Sets ROE for specific operation and holds unit commanders responsible for training, implementation, and control
  • Unit Commanders - Train and implement ROE
  • Individual - Every individual is responsible for knowing ROE and taking appropriate action
slide19
FUNCTIONAL RULES FOR ROE
  • Hostility Criteria
  • Scale of Force/Challenging Procedure
  • Protection of Property and Foreign Nationals
  • Weapons Control Status/Alert Conditions
  • Arming Orders
garden plot

GARDEN PLOT

RULES OF ENGAGEMENT

Found in DOD Civil Disturbance Plan and CDRFORSCOM Civil Disturbance Plan

Restrictive And Detailed

Application Of Force

Troop Orientation

probable build up scenario
PROBABLE BUILD-UP SCENARIO
  • Local and State police unable to maintain order
  • National Guard placed on State Active Duty (Active component resources may be loaned to the National Guard for use during MACDIS operations [10 USC 372-4])
  • Support requested from Federal law enforcement agencies
  • Request for active Federal military forces
decision sequence
DECISION SEQUENCE

Presidential

Directive or

President

SecDef

Executive

Order

Executive Agent

(SecArmy)

Governor

CJCS

JS

Attorney

General

Director of

Military Support

USJFCOM

Requests

Tasking

Coordination

FORSCOM

Senior Civilian

Representative of the AG

JTF-250/MDW

usjfcom civil disturbance plan 2502 97
USJFCOM CIVIL DISTURBANCE PLAN2502-97
  • COMFORSCOM organizes, trains and maintains one Division Ready Brigade per CONUS Army Corps
    • III Corps
    • XVIII Corps
  • DRB serves as CONUS Quick Reaction Force
    • Alert Status
    • Trained & Equipped
corps tasks
CORPS TASKS
  • Nominate Commander CDTF = BG/MG
  • Establish CDTF Headquarters
  • Maintain Quick Reaction Force (Brigade)
    • Personnel Strength (Min - 1,210, Max - 2,150)
    • Conduct Annual Training
    • 24 Hour Alert Status
  • Maintain 1500 Sets Riot Control Equipment
execution
EXECUTION
  • Deployment
    • Responsibility of supported CINC
    • USCINCTRANS is ‘master coordinator’
    • Supported CINC prioritizes unit movement
  • Employment
    • JTF Commander controls operations
    • CINC resources / directs
    • Executive Agent directs
    • Operations defined by / in support of DOJ
  • Redeployment
    • Responsibility of supported CINC
preliminary actions
PRELIMINARY ACTIONS
  • Alert Order
  • Increase in CIDCON
  • Designation of JTF Commander
  • Designation of forces
  • JTF Commander reconnaissance
civil military relationship
CIVIL-MILITARY RELATIONSHIP

Secretary of Defense

Secretary of Army

Attorney General

Director Of

Military Support

CJCS

Coordination

FBI

Commander in Chief

U.S. JF Command

Command

Mission

Guidance

Commander

Forces Command

Operational

Control

JTF-MDW

CORPS Commander

Senior Civilian

Representative of

the Attorney General

JTF-250

summary
SUMMARY
  • Legal Requirements and Restrictions Established
  • Specific Forces On Alert
  • Key Considerations Identified
    • Integration with local/state/federal law enforcement
    • Rules of Engagement
    • Force Protection
  • DCO/EPLO Involvement Probable
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