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Try Another Way. Integration is as important as skill acquisition. Training should be done in environments where information will be used. Train natural trainers as well as human services trainers. Worker Orientation. A successful orientation :

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try another way
Try Another Way

Integration is as important as skill acquisition.

Training should be done in environments where information will be used.

Train natural trainers as well as human services trainers.

worker orientation
Worker Orientation
  • A successful orientation:
    • Helps establish a feeling of belonging by a social welcoming process.
    • Clarifies basic expectations of early job performance and other work routines.
worker orientation1
Worker Orientation
  • Ways for Co-Workers and Supervisors to Support Newly-Hired People
    • Introductions
    • Overview of Setting
    • Job Training
    • Job Supports
helping employees learn new skills effective training practices
Helping Employees Learn New Skills:Effective Training Practices
  • Be consistent
  • Keep a record of learning
  • Learning through the natural environment
  • Provide frequent and varied practice
  • Determine the person’s best learning style
individualized teaching multiple intelligences
Individualized Teaching & Multiple Intelligences

People Learn

  • 10% of what we see
  • 20% of what we hear
  • 50% of what we see and hear
  • 70% of what we discuss
  • 80% of what we experience
  • 95% of what we teach others
  • Intelligence Type (Howard Gardener)
    • Words
    • Numbers
    • Pictures
    • Music
    • Body
    • People
    • Self
    • Nature
task analysis see form
Task AnalysisSee Form

organizes an activity into chunks of behavior using teachable steps and strategies for instruction.

allows the learner to develop multi-step, complex skills that would otherwise be difficult to acquire.

When developing a task analysis, consider:

the person's learning style

the person's ability to perform multi-step operations

the best order of steps to learn a task

the most natural way of doing the task

the most accepted method of doing the task in the work setting.

analyzing baseline data observe the worker do the task
Analyzing Baseline Data:Observe the worker do the task.
  • The setting
  • The trainer
  • Natural cues and supports
  • Starting cues
  • Time needed
analyzing baseline data observe the worker do the task1
Analyzing Baseline Data:Observe the worker do the task.
  • Task analysis
  • Difficult steps
  • Reinforcement
  • Errors
  • Data collection
discrepancy analysis
Discrepancy Analysis
  • Compile an inventory on a routine.
  • Demonstrate task during naturally-occurring cycles or accompany on activity & point out natural cues & order.
  • Evaluate the worker doing the routine. For each step, give enough information to keep going, but no direct instruction unless an error.
  • Note how the learner attends to and benefits from the natural cues and consequences.
prompts brief instructional signals given before a response
PROMPTS: brief instructional signals given before a response.

Avoid having the learner become too dependent on artificial prompts.

  • Vocal
  • Visual
  • Tactile
Use Prompts Systematically:
  • Least assistance needed
  • Consistent, concise, descriptive
  • Use vocal or visual BEFORE tactile or physical
  • Fade ASAP
prompting hierarchy
Prompting Hierarchy

Least Intrusive Prompts

  • Graduated Guidance
  • Most to Least
    • Verbal
    • Gesture
    • Model
    • Physical (Start)
  • Least to Most
    • Verbal (Start)
    • Gesture
    • Model
    • Physical
rules for fading of prompts
Rules for Fading of Prompts
  • Once faded…
    • Start at last level from last session
    • Fade presence/proximity over time
natural cues prompts that are a natural part of the work setting
NATURAL CUES = prompts that are a natural part of the work setting.
  • Clock rings
  • Co-workers leave
  • Machinery stops
  • Work piles up
  • Checklists posted
  • Color tab on box
  • Supplies run low
  • Co-worker instruction
Reinforcement:When the frequency of a behavior is maintained or increased, the consequences after it are called reinforcers.
  • Time delay
    • Reduces contingency
  • Quantity
    • Effects response strength
  • Satiation
    • Ceiling, then decrease in response
principles of reinforcement
Principles of Reinforcement
  • Conditioned Reinforcer
  • Contingency
  • DRI
  • DRO
principles of reinforcement1
Principles of Reinforcement
  • Premack Principle
  • Shaping
  • Chaining
  • Gradient of reinforcement
guidelines for using natural reinforcers
Guidelines for Using Natural Reinforcers
  • Authentic
  • Context appropriate
  • Person appropriate
  • Setting and situation appropriate
  • Available
guidelines for using natural reinforcers1
Guidelines for Using Natural Reinforcers
  • Provided by those who normally provide them
  • Used immediately and consistently at first
  • Individualized
  • Age appropriate and real
data collection
Data Collection
  • Monitor progress
  • Pinpoint difficulties
  • Interval recording
  • Frequencies
  • Duration
  • Needed assistance
work errors allow for challenge but minimize frustration
Work Errors:Allow for challenge, but minimize frustration…
  • Inaccurate
  • Incorrect Step
  • Inefficient
  • Unsafe
  • Incorrect Pace
  • Incomplete
training sequence for self instruction
Training Sequence for Self-Instruction

1. Trainer models task while self-instructing aloud.

2. Employee performs task while trainer instructs.

3. Employee performs task while self-instructing aloud.

fading an active process that ensures that supports are in place
Fading:an active process that ensures that supports are in place.
  • Use smaller, less guided prompts
  • Develop natural supports
  • Generalize
  • Reduce to natural level of reinforcement
exercise fading strategies
Exercise: Fading Strategies
  • As the employment consultant began to spend time away from the site, Bob’s work production slowed…
  • Albert has come to rely on the cues of a co-worker, and even looks forward to this interaction…

What is your advice?

social relationships natural supports
Social Relationships & Natural Supports
  • Assisting the employer to facilitate, enhance, or expand the existing strategies and resources for support and accommodation within an employment setting and culture.
  • Assisting the supported employee to become a valued member of a work team in order to receive ongoing support from coworkers with work and social needs.
balancing support needs
Balancing Support Needs
  • Use natural supports as the first line of support.
  • Provide direct support and training when natural supports are insufficient or unavailable.
  • Natural supports should not be used as a reason for providing inadequate support.
exercise survey your own workplace
Exercise: Survey Your Own Workplace

Using the Workplace Culture Survey, interview a person about their workplace culture from outside your own agency and complete all 31 questions in the left-hand column.

research findings on natural supports
Research Findings onNatural Supports
  • Mank, et al., 1997 found:
    • better integrated =
    • work more and earn more
    • better integrated if more typical
    • more typical employment = higher wages and integration, regardless of severity of disability
  • Chadsey, et al., 1997 found:
    • intrusiveness of job coach presence “is so influential that it dampens the benefits of social integration interventions”
research findings on natural supports1
Research Findings onNatural Supports
  • Mank, et al., 1999 found:
    • Specific support information =
    • better outcomes; general information is not
    • immediate work area =
    • better wages and integration
    • individually or in small groups just before starts the job
  • Mank, et al., 2000 found:
    • more hours of direct support by employment specialists = poorer work outcomes
    • unless co-workers have been trained and are involved in support
analyzing work cultures
Analyzing Work Cultures
  • Stories, language, gestures
  • Social activities, celebrations, ceremonies
  • Work pace and quantity expected
  • Territory, dress and grooming
  • Cliques, relationships
  • Humor, teasing, eating/drinking customs
  • Initiations
facilitating relationships
Facilitating Relationships
  • Familiarity
  • Personalized Touches
  • Common Interests
  • Social Customs
  • Teasing and Humor
potential co worker roles in job training
Potential Co-Worker Roles in Job Training
  • Orient to the job
  • Provide advice and reassurance
  • Direct instruction
  • Translate job changes
  • Point out natural cues
potential co worker roles in job training1
Potential Co-Worker Roles in Job Training
  • Link to others for support
  • Help negotiate the physical environment
  • Assist with time management
  • Check for quality
  • Modify job tasks
training with natural validity
Training with Natural Validity
  • Do not interfere with training that would occur naturally.
  • Supplement and enhance what is already available.
  • Consider the least intrusive, most acceptable mode of training to the work culture that will still be the most effective for the individual.
  • The training should not stigmatize the supported employee.
appropriate social behavior
Appropriate Social Behavior
  • Behavioral analysis.
  • Behavior has a communicative function.
  • Develop hypotheses about what the behavior may mean in light of the fit between the setting and what the person desires.
behavior change helping workers fit in
Behavior Change:Helping workers fit in
  • Reinforcement of alternative behavior
  • Redirection
  • Discussing behavior and its impact
  • Environmental demands
  • Modeling
  • Counseling
  • Role playing
it s all about relationships
It’s all about relationships…
  • People report the most important thing for job success AND job satisfaction is:
  • Liking the people you work with and having them like you.

Be a model.

Celebrate successes with others.

Help people learn direct eye contact, show interest and open mind

Give reminders of progress and history. Provide a larger context.

Seek clear expectations.

Give sincere praise for a job well done.

Deal directly with problems as they occur.

teaching social competence
Teaching Social Competence

Change ineffective behaviors just after they occur

Teach new behaviors for situations not experienced

Use co-worker interventions

on the job problem solving
On the Job Problem Solving

Content Interventions

Process Interventions



Career and Recovery

6: Self-Determination

Ending a Job

7: Goal/Role

8: Job Dev.

9: Job Success

Section 5

10: Job End

Section 11

Job Termination
    • Most people with mental illness have poor termination experiences.
    • Related to social issues.
    • Mental and medical illness plays a role.
    • Job dissatisfaction.
    • Poor dependability.
Improving Job Motivation
  • Celebrate successes
  • Interact respectfully
  • Give reminders of progress
  • Use active listening
  • Seek clear expectations
  • Sincere praise
  • Problems as they occur
Leaving a Job Considerations
  • Returning to work?
  • How difficult to find another good job?
  • Income reduction?
  • Loss of benefits?
  • Spend time?
  • Impact on illness?
How to Resign
  • Give Notice
    • No negatives
      • Reasonable timeline
        • Thanks
          • Kept on file
Leaving after Termination
  • Getting Fired
    • Emotional Support
    • Refocus on the future
    • Get back on the horse
    • Determine the nature of the cause.
Learning from Job Loss
  • What are you looking for from your next employer?
  • What will you do different on the next job?
  • Were any of your needed supports a hardship and could they be changed?
  • Social relationships?
  • Better job match to skills and interests?
Learning from Job Loss
  • Research company policy.
  • References and contacts.
  • Keep explanations simple.
  • Leave on good terms.
  • Return company property.
Career and Recovery

6: Self-Determination


7: Goal/Role

8: Job Dev.

4: Assessment

10: Job End

11: Collaboration

collaboration satisfied relationships
Collaboration = Satisfied Relationships






how to manage relationships
How to Manage Relationships
  • Good Communication
    • Telephone
    • E-mail
    • Meetings
    • Support Groups
    • Newsletters
    • Web Site
manage relationships
Manage Relationships
  • Referral
  • Intake
  • Career Planning
  • Job Exposure
  • Job Development
  • Job Offer
  • Job Change/Termination



  • Human Service Professionals
    • PT, OT, Speech
    • Counseling
    • Transportation
    • Assistive Tech
    • Mobility Training
    • Respite
    • Daily Living,
    • Medical Services
    • Behavioral Consultation
  • Families
    • Respond to fears of loss: benefits, safety, job, friends
    • Low expectations
  • Job Seekers
    • Participation to the fullest extent possible
an overview families and individuals
An Overview: Families and Individuals
  • Experiences
  • Skills
  • Expectations
  • Support
family quality job outcomes
Family Quality: Job Outcomes
  • Safety
  • Security
  • Choice & Control
  • Maintain Benefits
  • Access to Supports
  • Safety Net
family support
Family Support
  • Family members as consultants & source of ideas
  • Family network for job development
  • Family membership in community groups (Rotary, Civic Clubs)
  • Natural supports - family and friends
  • Frequent communication
strategies for family support
Strategies for Family Support
  • Provide info from the start
  • Acknowledge what they're saying
  • Develop back-up plans
  • Commit to an ongoing partnership