History of Germany - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

history of germany n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
History of Germany PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
History of Germany

play fullscreen
1 / 42
History of Germany
416 Views
Download Presentation
cecile
Download Presentation

History of Germany

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. History of Germany Lecture: Adenauer Germany

  2. Schedule • The establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany • West integration and German unity • The ‘Economic Miracle‘ • The burden of the past • The culture of the 1950’s • The end of an era • Conclusion

  3. Basics • Basic Law • Human rights are part of constitution and bind both executive and legislative • Federal Constitutional Court checks laws and actions of government if they are compatible with constitution • Federal Structure: Bundesrat (federal council) part of legislative • Parliament (Bundestag): 50% of deputies elected in constituencies, 50% on party lists in lands, decisive for number of deputies is more or less relative share of national votes, a party has to have at least 5% of the votes or 1 (later 3) elected deputy(ies) in constituency • Weak Federal President, strong Federal Chancellor • Chancellor elected by parliament, can only be removed when parliament elects in the same procedure new chancellor

  4. CDU Social market economy Close cooperation with Occupation powers German unity (but priority given to Western integration) Anti-communism Konrad Adenauer SPD Plan economy A more independent policy German unity (free and democratic, but neutral Germany acceptable) Anti-communism Kurt Schumacher Election Campaign 1949

  5. Kurt Schumacher (1895-1952), the leader of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) Konrad Adenauer (1876-1967), the leader of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU)

  6. Elections August 14, 1949 1949

  7. Chancellor Konrad Adenauer, Minister of Economics Ludwig Erhard, President Theodor Heuss

  8. Why were extremist parties not successfull • Allied control: parties needed concession of High Commissioner • SRP forbidden 1951 by Federal Constitutional Court • KPD forbidden 1956 by Federal Constitutional Court • Right wing parties as Bund der Heimatvertriebenen und Entrechteteten (BHE) absorbed by CDU/CSU • Nationalist takeover of Liberal party (FDP) prevented by Allies (arrest of leaders) • Economic success story

  9. 1957 1953

  10. Schedule • The establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany • West integration and German unity • The ‘Economic Miracle‘ • The burden of the past • The culture of the 1950’s • The end of an era • Conclusion

  11. Adenauer’s Strategy for West Germany International recognition by integration, Democratisation by Westernisation, reconciliation with France, close relationship with United States – essential for security in bipolar international system (Soviet Threat) Western allies and Western European countries Defeat German militarism and idea of revenge by integration What helped? Perceived Soviet Threat: especially after 1949 (Soviet Atomic Bomb): German participation needed, good bargaining position for Adenauer: concessions Korean War 1950 - 1953

  12. Economic, political and military integration • 1951 Signing (in Paris) of the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) • 1952 Signing (in Paris) of the European Defense Community (EDC) • 1954 Signing of the Paris Agreements. FRG/BRD is invited to join NATO permitting West German rearmament and Italy and the FRG/BRD accede to the Western European Union (WEU) • 1957 The Treaty of Rome is signed establishing the European Economic Community • 1963 French-German Friendship Treaty is signed in Paris

  13. The fight for the rearmament of Germany 1956

  14. Konrad Adenauer and Charles de Gaulle, 1962 Reims

  15. Germany • 1952 Stalin note: offer of neutral, unified Germany • 1952 Signing (in Bonn) of FRG's "Germany Treaty" (which includes reunification as a political goal) • 1953 (June 17): Riots in East Berlin • 1955 Paris Treaty in force (establishing sovereignity for West Germany [FRG/BRD]) • 1955 Chancellor Adenauer visits Moscow • 1957 The Saar returns to Germany as a Land (to be followed in 3 years by economic reintegration) • 1958 Chrushchev’s Berlin ultimatum • 1961 Berlin Wall – cementing partition

  16. Stalinnote of March 10, 1952 and April 9, 1952 • Offer: Unification of Germany • Price: Neutralisation of Germany • Aim: To prevent integration of West Germany in Western military alliance system • Historiography: • Serious offer of Soviet Union • Move in propaganda war

  17. Schedule • The establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany • West integration and German unity • The ‘Economic Miracle‘ • The burden of the past • The culture of the 1950’s • The end of an era • Conclusion

  18. Cologne 1945

  19. Problems • Limited souvereignity • Total government expenditures in 1950: 11.6 billion DM, 4.2 billion DM for occupation costs (36% of budget) • High unemployment (1950: 10%) • Almost 8 million displaced persons had to be integrated • Housing shortage • War destructions, war invalids • Reparation payments and demontage (until 1949 more than 3,4 billion $ (in prices of 1938)

  20. Pluses • Level of destruction not as high as expected • American aid (Marshal plan) • Interest of Western European countries and the United States in a prosperous German economy as precondition for the reconstruction of European economy • Skilled workforce available • Successful currency reform in 1948 • Conflict between Western Allies and Soviet Union • Korean War • Long period of economic growth in most important capitalist countries • Ludwig Erhard and his Soziale Marktwirtschaft (social market economy) • Trade unions united under social democratic leadership, cooperative • Work as an compensation for refusal to confront with the German war crimes ?

  21. 1951: 10.9% 1952: 9.0 1953: 7.9 1954: 7.2 1955: 12.0 1956: 7.0 1957: 5.8 1958: 3.3 1959: 6.9 1960: 8.8 1961: 4.3 1962: 4.7 1963: 2.8 1950 983.7 Billion DM 1963 2003.0 Billion DM Per capita 1950 2,100 DM 1963 6,700 DM Growth Rate Gross National Product

  22. Successes • Unemployment 1950: 2 Million 1960: a few ten thousand • Export surplus • Improved living standard (‘Fresswelle’) • Real wages 1965 twice as high as 1950 • Mobility (social and other) • Social policy: Equalization of burden (Lastenausgleich) 1952, Progressive growth of pensions 1957

  23. The German actor Gert Fröbe in Berliner Ballad (1948) Gert Fröbe in the 1960‘s

  24. Schedule • The establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany • West integration and German unity • The ‘Economic Miracle‘ • The burden of the past • The culture of the 1950’s • The end of an era • Conclusion

  25. Nazi past • Conscious effort to break with Nazi past, “inventing” a liberal, democratic, western Germany • Amnesty laws 1949 and 1950: people with ‘minor’ crimes, sentences amnestied • Rehabilitation of the Wehrmacht • Integration of old elites – including leading members of Nazi party and organisations • Stabilizing effect: no strong nationalist (national socialist) opposition – potential absorbed by CDU and CSU • Costs: Ethical, have not to confront Nazi past and many thousands not punished for crimes

  26. Nazi Past Theodor Oberländer (1905-1998) Advising officer of the Wehrmacht on minority questions (Eastern Front) Minister for Displaced Persons and Refugees (1953-1960) Hans Globke (1898-1973) Wrote in 1935 a commentary to the Nuremberg laws Director of the Federal Chancellery, 1953-1963

  27. But… • 1952 Signing of the Reconciliation Treaty between Israel and West Germany • Financial compensation for Jewish property • Since end of 1950’s: Trials against War Criminals and guards of Concentration Camps • Zentralstelle der Landesjustizverwaltung zur Aufklärung nationalsozialistischer Verbrechen 1958 (Ludwigsburger Zentralstelle) • Historians publish books on Holocaust • Critical novels, poems, theatre productions, films on Nazi past

  28. Schedule • The establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany • West integration and German unity • The ‘Economic Miracle‘ • The burden of the past • The culture of the 1950’s • The end of an era • Conclusion

  29. The Fifties • Escapist Optimism: Dominance of Hollywood • Heimatfilms, Romances and “Sissi” (Austrian Empress Elisabeth) Films These films stressed a timeless world of unchanged social order and were kitschy • [Later, in the early 1960s some Westerns (Karl May Westerns), and Thrillers (Edgar Wallace, with Klaus Kinski).] • The Fifties were very successful at the Box office. • But also some films which did not fit in this picture: Die Suenderin (the sinner) with Hildegard Knef 1950, Der Untertan by Wolfgang Staudte 1951, Die Halbstarken (1957) with Horst Buchholz

  30. 1956 – 1958: 96 youth riots in major German cities 1956 1951

  31. German ‘schlager’ music • 80% of all sold copies: recordings of German ‘schlager’ Freddy Quinn Conny Froboess

  32. Americanisation Peter Kraus 1956

  33. Schedule • The establishment of the Federal Republic of Germany • West integration and German unity • The ‘Economic Miracle‘ • The burden of the past • The culture of the 1950’s • The end of an era • Conclusion

  34. Willy Brandt (1913-1992) Mayor of Berlin, 1957-1966 Bundeskanzler, 1966-1972 Ludwig Erhard (1897-1977) Minister of Economy, 1949-1963 Bundeskanzler, 1963-1966

  35. Unsere Besten, ZDF Ranking 2003 1. Konrad Adenauer, Politiker (1876-1967) 2. Martin Luther, Kirchenreformator (1483-1546) 3. Karl Marx, Philosoph und Nationalökonom (1818-1883) 4. Sophie und Hans Scholl, Widerstandskämpfer ("Weiße Rose") (1921/1918-1943) 5. Willy Brandt, Politiker (1913-1992) 6. Johann Sebastian Bach, Komponist (1685-1750) 7. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Schriftsteller (1749-1832) 8. Johannes Gutenberg, Erfinder des Buchdrucks (1400-1468) 9. Otto von Bismarck, Politiker (1815-1898) 10. Albert Einstein, Naturwissenschaftler (1879-1955)

  36. Conclusion • Stabilisation • Diversification (Pluralisierung) • Internationalisation • Tradition AND Mondernity