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Overview of Northwestern University and the Materials Research Center. Lincoln Lauhon RET Program Director Materials Research Center Department of Materials Science and Engineering. Northwestern University.

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    1. Overview of Northwestern University and the Materials Research Center Lincoln Lauhon RET Program Director Materials Research Center Department of Materials Science and Engineering

    2. Northwestern University • Founded in 1851 to serve the Northwest Territory, an area that now includes: Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, and part of Minnesota. • In 1853 the founders purchased a 379-acre tract of land on the shore of Lake Michigan 12 miles north of Chicago. • They established a campus and developed the land near it, naming the surrounding town Evanston in honor of one of the University's founders, John Evans. • After completing its first building in 1855, Northwestern began classes that fall with two faculty members and 10 students. • Currently two campuses: a 240-acre campus in Evanston, and a 25-acre campus in Chicago. • Annual Budget ~$1.2 Billion (51% from tuition, 31% from grants) Source: http://www.northwestern.edu/about/facts/

    3. Northwestern: Student Body • 7,976 undergraduates • 4,058 in Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences • 1,381 in McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science • 7,153 graduate and professional students • 1,162 in Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences • 726 in McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science Source: http://www.northwestern.edu/about/facts/

    4. Northwestern: Faculty and Research • Approximately 2,500 full-time faculty • Approximately 4,600 staff • 607 in Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences • 187 in McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science • 2007 total research budget $416 million • 72% Federal Sources (11.6% NSF) • 13.7% McCormick Engineering • 11.6% Weinberg Arts and Sciences • 6.4% Research Centers Source: http://www.northwestern.edu/about/facts/ http://www.research.northwestern.edu/publications/annual-report/2007/AR2007.pdf

    5. Northwestern: Engineering McCormick School of Engineering and Applied Science Departments: • Biomedical Engineering • Chemical and Biological Engineering • Civil and Environmental Engineering • Electrical Engineering and Computer Science • Engineering Sciences and Applied Mathematics • Industrial Engineering and Management Sciences • Materials Science and Engineering • Mechanical Engineering

    6. Northwestern: Science Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences (Departments and Programs) • biochemistry, molecular biology, and cell biology • biological sciences • chemistry • computing and information systems • earth & planetary sciences • environmental sciences • integrated science program • interdepartmental biological sciences program (iBis), grad program • mathematics • neurobiology and physiology • physics and astronomy • plant biology and conservation • statistics

    7. Northwestern: Research Centers • Northwestern supports interdisciplinary research through Research Centers, which are independent of schools • List of Science and Engineering-related Centers: • Argonne/Northwestern Solar Energy Research Center • Center for Catalysis and Surface Science • Center for Drug Discovery and Chemical Biology • Center for Functional Genomics • Center for Reproductive Science • Center for Sleep and Circadian Biology • Center for Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence • Chemistry of Life Processes Institute • Institute for Bionanotechnology in Medicine • International Institute for Nanotechnology • Materials Research Center • Nanoscale Science and Engineering Center • Northwestern Institute on Complex Systems • Northwestern Synchrotron Research Center • Northwestern University Atomic and Nanoscale Characterization Experimental Center

    8. Materials Research Center • Started in 1960 • Funding originally from Department of Defense • Now funded by the National Science Foundation under the Materials Research Science and Engineering (MRSEC) program • 36 faculty members from 8 academic departments • 18 postdocs, 68 graduate students • Budget: approximately $2-3 million per year • 6-year renewal funding cycle

    9. NU-MRSEC Mission The Northwestern University Materials Research Science and Engineering Center develops and supports collaborative, interdisciplinary research and education in the science and engineering of nano-scale multifunctional material structures.

    10. Synergistic, Innovative Research • Research organized into Interdisciplinary Research Groups (IRGs) • IRG 1 Synergistic Linear and Nonlinear Phenomena in Multifunctional Oxide Ceramic Systems • IRG 2 Novel Processing Methods for Nanostructured Polymer Blends, Composites and Supramolecular Structures • IRG 3 Molecular Plasmonics: Fundamentals, New Tools, and Devices • IRG 4 Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Nanoelectronic Materials from Molecules to Printable Thin Films • Groups of 6-10 researchers from various academic departments work on a complex set of problems for several years • Significant theory-experiment interactions • High-risk new project funded as Seeds • Currently, biology-related and biomaterials research

    11. Research Goals • IRG #1:Synergistic Linear and Nonlinear Phenomena in Multifunctional Oxide Ceramic Systems • GOAL OF IRG #1: • This group seeks to advance fundamental knowledge leading to the development of energy-efficient and novel multifunctional devices for electronic, optoelectronic, storage, sensor and information technologies.

    12. Mixed Metal Oxide Chalcogenides Evan Stampler , Kenneth Poeppelmeier Mixed metal oxide chalcogenides find utility in a variety of areas, including transparent conductors. BiCuOSe was prepared at low temperature (250 oC) and pressure (< 20 atm) and the experimental parameters (pH, temperature, reagents, etc.) conducive to the hydrothermal preparation of oxide chalcogenides were explored. Scanning electron microscope image of mixed metal oxide chalcogenide. Isosurface of the electron localization function (ELF) illustrates the directional lone pair (orbital mixing) on bismuth cations (black sphere) near the chalcogenide (green sphere) anions.

    13. Molecular Beam Epitaxy of Ferroic and Multiferroic Thin Films Figure 1A: Ji Cheng, G. Sterbinsky, B. W. Wessels, Sujing Xie and Vinayak P. Dravid Fig 1A Epitaxial ferroic oxide thin films and multilayers have been synthesized by oxide molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), for combining materials with different properties such as ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity in a single structure. Fe3O4, CoFe2O4 and MgFe2O4 were deposited, which exhibit sharp interfaces with excellent cube-on-cube orientation. Magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE) and SQUID magnetometry measurements indicate that bulk-like magnetic properties can be obtained in the thin films. Fig 1B Fe3O4/MgO MgFe2O4/MgO Fig. 1A: Cross-section HRTEM of epitaxial CoFe2O4 film on SrTiO3 substrate, showing sharp interfaces with cube-on-cube orientation; Fig. 1B: In-plane MOKE hysteresis loops of Fe3O4 and MgFe2O4 films.

    14. Research Goals IRG #2:Novel Processing Methods for Nanostructured Polymer Blends, Composites and Supramolecular Structures GOAL OF IRG #2: The primary goal of this group is to develop and produce materials with superior mechanical properties using polymer-based processing strategies that include polymers, ceramics, metals and structured composite materials.

    15. A Reliable Strategy for Designing Functional Polymer Nanoparticles Using Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization Jun-Hyun Kim and SonBinh T. Nguyen We have developed a highly reliable approach for the preparation of functional polymeric materials utilizing ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP). Examining the chemical/physical properties of these functional norbornene-based homopolymers will lead to a better understanding of the changes in their properties upon incorporation with inorganic materials (SiO2, gold, and/or Fe2O3). The resulting nanocomposites can then serve as environmental responsive materials for coatings, mechanical reinforcement, electro-optical applications and biological delivery. SEM images of poly(NBE-COOH) in various solvents

    16. Mystery of Charge Asymmetry: Anionic Macroions in Periodic Lattices Held by Hydrated Cations and Not Vice-versa William Kung, Dongsheng Zhang, Pedro Gonzales-Mozuelos, Monica Olvera de la Cruz (LEFT) Interactions between the bent-core water molecules (blue) and the positive and negative particles. (ABOVE): Simulation snapshots of the counterion (small dot) - colloid (red) interactions. Experiments have shown that negatively charged colloids experience a long-range attraction and spontaneously order in a solution of counterions, but positively charged colloids do not order under similar circumstances. This asymmetry can be understood in terms of the bent geometry of water molecules as shown in the diagram on the right. There is frustration in the arrangement of water molecules around neighboring like-charged particles in (A) and (B). Due to the bent-core geometry of the water molecules, they arrange themselves in a more favorable configuration for larger negative particles with smaller positively charged particles (C) than in the reverse scenario (D). A mean-field analytical model and numerical simulations were applied to a colloidal system of negatively charged disks and counterions that are absorbed on an interface in a compressible binary system. The system results in a dilute isotropic ionic phase and a condensed hexagonal lattice phase.

    17. Research Goals IRG #3:Molecular Plasmonics: Fundamentals, New Tools, and Devices GOAL OF IRG #3: The primary goal of this group is to advance understanding of plasmonic phenomena at the single nanoparticle and single molecule levels; and to develop the new research tools necessary to accomplish this.

    18. Plasmonic Properties of Aluminum Nanoparticles Fabricated by Nanosphere Lithography George H. Chan, Jing Zhao, George C. Schatz, and Richard P. Van Duyne A plasmon is the result of light interacting with the surface electrons in materials that meet specific dielectric requirements. Noble metals have long been used as plasmonic materials, yet other materials are capable of supporting surface plasmons. Recent work in the Van Duyne lab has shown that aluminum nanoparticles fabricated using a process known as nanosphere lithography (NSL) display plasmons throughout the UV-vis region. Both from experiment and theory, the presence of an oxide layer does not significantly affect their plasmonic properties. As a result, a promising plasmonic active UV material has been developed for use in surface enhanced spectroscopies (i.e., Raman) and in plasmonic devices.

    19. Nanodisk Codes Lidong Qin, Matthew J. Banholzer, Jill E. Millstone, and Chad A. Mirkin Researchers at Northwestern University have developed a method to use nanoscale disk arrays as powerful encoding devices that can be dispersed in a variety of materials for both security and sensing applications. These Nanodisk Codes (NDCs) are made using a process called “On-Wire Lithography” which can create a linear series of disk pairs, each with a tiny gap. These disk pairs amplify molecular signals so that the NDC can be read out both by counting the number of disks along an individual array or by identify the chemical signal broadcast from and amplified by the disk pair. It is possible to make billions of unique codes simply by increasing the number of disk pairs and/or type of molecular signal. a) Nanodisk fabrication. b) Multi-level encoding based on binary readout and disk functionalization. c) Harnesses the power of nanostructured Raman “hot spots,” greatly enhancing intrinsic Raman signal by 8 orders of magnitude. b) a) c) 2D Confocal Raman Image 3D Confocal Raman Image Nano Lett., 7, 3849 (2007).

    20. Research Goals IRG #4 Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Nanoelectronic Materials from Molecules to Printable Thin Films GOAL OF IRG #4: Synthesis, processing, characterization and theory will be employed to improve fundamental understanding and optimize process efficiency across multiple length-scales, and to enable novel technological advances in the area of hybrid organic/inorganic nanoelectronic materials.

    21. Detection of Single Gold Atoms in Silicon Nanowires Jonathan E. Allen, Eric R. Hemesath, Daniel E. Perea, Jessica L. Lensch-Falk, and Lincoln J. Lauhon Semiconductor nanowires grown with metal nanocatalysts are new materials that provide a basis for transformative improvements in diverse technologies including thermoelectrics and photovoltaics. Nanowire electronic properties depend strongly on incorporated impurity atoms, which have not been previously observed. Northwestern researchers and their collaborators have imaged single gold catalyst atoms in individual silicon nanowires, and measured the influence of the gold on the electrical properties. Scanning transmission electron microscope image of lines of single gold atoms in a twinned silicon nanowire. International collaborators: Richard E. Palmer, Ziyou Li, Feng Yin, University of Birmingham, and Mhairi H. Gass, Peng Wang, and Andrew L. Bleloch, SuperSTEM Laboratory, Daresbury. Nature Nanotechnology, 3, 168 (2008).

    22. Atomic Force Photovoltaic Microscopy B. J. Leever, M. F. Durstock, M. D. Irwin, A. W. Hains, T. J. Marks, L. S. C. Pingree, and M. C. Hersam Organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) hold promise for a variety of applications requiring alternative energy generation. Through a collaboration between Northwestern University MRSEC IRG 4 and Wright Patterson Air Force Base, a new strategy for characterizing the electrical and optical performance of operating OPVs has recently been developed. Atomic force photovoltaic microscopy allows the photocurrent response in OPVs and other optoelectronically-active materials and devices to be spatially mapped down to the nanometer length scale. Atomic force photovoltaic microscopy image of the short circuit response of an array of illuminated organic solar cells. Appl. Phys. Lett., 92, 013302 (2008).

    23. Seed Projects • Seed funding is provided to promising new high-risk projects that may result in transformative science. • Seed #1 – Synthetic Development of Novel Organic Electron Transport Materials (Karl A. Scheidt, Chemistry) • Seed #2 – Nanocomposite Elastomers for Vascular Tissue Engineering (Guillermo Ameer, Biomedical Engineering) • Seed #3 – Analysis and Design of Genetic and Metabolic Control Systems of Bacterial Cells (Adilson E. Motter, Physics and Astronomy, John F. Marko, Biochemistry, Molecular Biology & Cell Biology, Physics and Astronomy) • Seed #4 – Electrostatically “Patchy” Nanoparticle Coatings for Applications in Biomaterials and Flexible Electronics (Bartosz Andrzej von Poray Grzybowski, Chemical and Biological Engineering)

    24. Moldable Supraspheres Made of Metal Nanoparticles R. Klajn, K. J. M. Bishop, C. J. Campbell, B. A. Grzybowski Metal nanoparticles crosslinked by dithiol linkers form “supraspherical” assemblies that behave like Play-doh and can glue to one another to form macroscopic materials. Researchers at the Northwestern University MRSEC have shown that such materials combine the properties of plastics and metals. Due to their “stickiness”, the supraspheres can be molded at room temperature into macroscopic structures of arbitrary shapes. Subsequent gentle heating hardens the objects and converts them to pure-metal monoliths. This general strategy has been successfully extended to various noble metals and their alloys. The picture on the left shows supraspheres – that is, buildling blocks of “moldable metals”. The picture on the right shows a macroscopic (1 mm-wide) gear molded at room temperature and “hardened” by heating at 50 oC. Science, 316, 261 (2007).

    25. Magnetic Tweezer System for Single-DNA Experiments: A Summer Undergraduate Project James Kath (REU), John Graham (Mentor) and John F. Marko REU student James Kath, under the supervision of Professor John Marko has constructed a magnetic tweezer system which allows force-extension and twisting experiments to be carried out on single DNA molecules. The primary application of this instrument will be to the study of protein-DNA interactions. Preliminary studies have verified that the new instrument can carry out rapid acquisition of extensions of DNA molecules, via particle-tracking and out-of-focus bead image analysis. This simple instrument can monitor motions of paramagnetic colloidal particles attached to DNA molecules in three dimensions. REU participant, James Kath constructs microscope which uses optical microscopy to monitor motions of magnetic particles attached to DNA molecules. Particles are pulled and rotated using permanent magnets on a positioner.

    26. Shared Facilities, Labs and Equipment Labs • Center manages 15 shared facilities • Shared experimental facilities available to on and off-campus researchers • 25,000 sq. ft. • operations funded through grants and user fees Equipment • 500 faculty and students use the equipment • Most of the equipment is housed in MRC • Equipment Cost Budget • Equipment purchases or upgrades http://www.mrsec.northwestern.edu/content/facilities/index.htm

    27. International Collaborations • Ajou University, Korea • Brain Korea 21 (BK21) is a research-oriented educational program between Ajou University and the Materials Research Center. • NU Collaborators: Mark Hersam, John Torkelson • Dr. Jae-Ho Kim development of mass production technology of carbon nanotube atomic force microscope tip. • Jae-Hyeok Lee spent three months in 2008 at NU studying carbon nanotube atomic force microscope tips with the Hersam group. • University of Riga, Latvia • Institute of Solid State Physics • Collaboration on theoretical calculations of defects in crystalline metal oxides. • NU Collaborator: Don Ellis • Scientists from Latvia visit NU several times a year.

    28. Industry / National Lab Interface • Workshops/Seminars/Colloquia • Symposium on Atomic-Scale Modeling (July 25) • Mark Stevens, Sandia (July 26) • “Optically/Electronically Functional Polymers and Molecular Assemblies” Colloquium Series • Student Internships • NREL (Mariana Bertoni), transition metal oxides • New: Sigma Aldrich • Visitors • Industrial visitors in Torkelson lab: SSSP • Visitors attending workshops, meetings • Use of Shared Facilities • Licensing of patents through Technology Transfer Office.

    29. Educational Programs • Middle School Science Clubs • About weekly October - May • Undergraduate, graduate student volunteers • Sponsor: Science in the Classroom (elementary school); NU Solar Car Team • Center for Talent Development summer class for middle school students: Materials and Engineering Design Honors • Academic-year Undergraduate Research Internship • Summer Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU), Research Experience for Teachers (RET)