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THE CULTURE OF POLITICAL ECONOMY, OR THE POLITICAL ECONOMY OF CULTURE The Constitution of Cultural Diversity in Southeast Asian Development Strategies (A RESEARCH AND ADVOCACY AGENDA). Bonn Juego PhD Fellow Global Development Studies Aalborg University, Denmark E-mail: [email protected]
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Global Development Studies
Aalborg University, Denmark
E-mail: [email protected]
30 April 2009
55 Bandung 55 Conference
How is cultural diversity constituted in the domestic development strategies of the Philippines, Malaysia, and Singapore?
of shared identities,
of groups of people
with shared culture,
making up a society
(How is cultural diversity constituted?)
Depending on the regime's success/failure to realise
“STRUCTURED COHERENCE” among
'the political', 'the economic', and 'the cultural'
Culture of Political Economy, or
the Political Economy of Culture?
The drive for global capitalist competitiveness
the nature of cultural diversity.
(Capitalism can exist with or without cultural diversity.)
Post-1997 Southeast AsiaGlobal Political Economy of Development, 1980s - 2009(General Characteristics)
(1st Generation Neo-liberal Reforms, 1980s - mid-1990’s)
Scope: Limited macroeconomic policies
Goal: ‘open market economy’
Approach: ‘shock’ tactics; ‘sound macroeconomic principles’
(2nd Generation Neo-liberal Reforms, mid-1990’s - 2009)
Scope: broader, more extensive and intrusive policies
Goal: ‘global competitiveness’
Approach: ‘deep’ institutional and behavioural/cultural change
National Systems of Innovation (NSI) Approaches
Freeman-Lundvall-Nelson: focus on developed, relatively homogenous, Scandinavian societies
Explore idea of 'tacit knowledge'
culture and cultural diversity for Third World developmentLITERATURES ON CULTURAL DIVERSITY
“The central conservative truth is that it is culture, not politics, that determines the success of a society. The central liberal truth is that politics can change a culture and save it from itself.”
(Daniel Patrick Moynihan)
Culture is among development's ends and means.
To examine the constitutive role of cultural diversity in development strategies
1. co-evolution of the ideational and material aspects intrinsic in the development process
2. cultural diversity in the political economy of development and the specificity of the Southeast Asian region
CPE + EDE:
Cultural diversity in the development strategies of the Philippines, Malaysia, and Singapore across time and space
Social regime: either ‘organic’, or
‘arbitrary, rationalistic, and willed’
“Cultural diversity widens the range of options open to everyone; it is one of the roots of development, understood not simply in terms of economic growth, but also as a means to achieve a more satisfactory intellectual, emotional, moral and spiritual existence.”
Asian Development Outlook 2004
5 Key Dimensions of Social Capital
1. Groups and networks (to promote and protect personal relationships)
2. Trust and Solidarity (to foster cohesion and collective action)
3. Collective Action and Cooperation (to resolve communal issues)
4. Social Cohesion and Inclusion (to mitigate risk of conflict thru participation)
5. Information and Communication (to improve access to information)
‘get the prices right’
‘get the property rights right’
‘get the institutions right’
‘get the governance right’
‘get the competitiveness right’
‘get the innovations right’
‘get the entrepreneurship right’
‘get the education right’
’get the climate right’
’get the diseases right’
‘get the culture right’
Missing dimension:‘GET THE ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES RIGHT’
1. Origin: historical question
2. Evolution (process of change): conjoint impact
CONTRIBUTION TO KNOWLEDGE OF THIS RESEARCH AGENDA
—Bonn Juego - 30 April 2009, Jakarta ([email protected])