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Comunicación y Gerencia Origins of Judaism
Jewish People In History • Homeland • Area of Palestine called Canaan • In 1800 BC (or so), Yahweh (God) told Abraham to go to Canaan, from Ur (in Sumeria) • B’rit: contract between Yahweh, Abraham as father of Jewish people • Yahweh promised to protect Jewish people • Jewish people promised to obey Yahweh
Jewish People in History • Around 1650 BC, Jewish people moved from Canaan to Egypt • Exodus • Egypt first welcomed them (Joseph story), then later enslaved them • Hebrews fled Egypt between 1300 and 1200 BC, back to Canaan (Moses story)
Exodus • New Covenant • Moses went to Mt. Sinai to pray; there, he encountered Yahweh • Moses brings the Ten Commandments • Basis for civil, religious laws of Judaism • New agreement between Yahweh, Jewish people • God protects them if they follow commandments • Hebrews wander for 40 years before reaching Canaan (central Palestine)
Kingdom of Israel • Hebrews expanded North, South to get more natural resources • Philistines challenged Hebrews, but lost (David story) • Kingdom of Israel • Jerusalem was its capitol • Famous kings: David, Solomon (baby splitter) • Kingdom of Judah (southern portion rebelled)
Foreign Domination • By 738 BC, both kingdoms paying tribute to Assyria (bribes not to invade) • Assyrians lost to Neo-Babylonians • Policy was to re-locate conquered people within Empire • Jews were spread out! • Called the “Babylonian Captivity” • 539 BC: Persians defeated Babylonians, allowed Hebrews back to Jerusalem to rebuild city
Sources of Jewish Law, Belief • Torah (“written law”) • First five books of Bible • Tell the story of how Yahweh chose Jewish people to be examples of how to live, worship • Most broadly, Torah means the entire body of Jewish law: written, oral, Talmud, contemporary interp.
Talmud • Law for the Jewish people • Originally, oral law passed down by rabbis to students • Talmud organized topically, like an encyclopedia
Ten Commandments • Religious, ethical principles of Jewish people • Moses brought them to the Jewish people • First five = community • Next five = individual
Belief System • Monotheistic: belief in one God, Yahweh • One God who is all powerful, personal, eternal
Belief System • Importance of Prophets • Words of prophets are true • Literally means one who proclaims word of God (spokesman of Yahweh) • Important prophets: Abraham, Moses, Jesus
Reward and Punishment • Follow the Covenant and be rewarded with Yahweh’s protection • Intentionally disobey Covenant and face Yahweh’s wrath • Chosen people • Jewish people were chosen by Yahweh as examples to rest of world (worship) • Does not mean that they are the only ones to be saved