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Indicators of integration in the EU. What do we measure, really?. PhDr. Michal Vašečka, PhD CVEK Bratislava www Experience exchange of best practices in integration indicators International workshop June 26, 2009 Bratislava , Slovakia. Presentation thesis.

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indicators of integration in the eu what do we measure really
Indicators of integration in the EU.

What do we measure, really?

PhDr. Michal Vašečka, PhD CVEK Bratislava

Experience exchange of best practices in integration indicators

International workshop

June 26, 2009

Bratislava, Slovakia

presentation thesis
Presentation thesis
  • Indicators of integration as they are used nowadays are insufficient.
  • They rather measure pre-conditions for integration than integration process itself.
  • The problem is not methological one, but structural and conceptual.
mipex as a frame of reference
MIPEX as a frame of reference
  • MIPEX measures policies to integrate migrants in 28 EU Member states and three non-EU countries. It uses over 140 policy indicators to create a rich, multi-dimensional picture of migrants' opportunities to participate in European societies.
  • MIPEX covers six policy areas which shape a migrant's journey to full citizenship: - Labor market access- Family reunion- Long-term residence- Political participation- Access to nationality- Anti-discrimination
  • MIPEX aims to improve migrant integration policies in Europe
what impex measures
What IMPEX measures?
  • The Migrant Integration Policy Index was first published in 2004 as the European Civic Citizenship and Inclusion Index.
  • Integration Policies should be understood as pre-conditions and pre-requisites for the integration process. The Migrant Integration Policy Index measures integration policies that initiate, help, and allow processes of integration.
  • In order to measure depth, range, and quality of integration process itself it is vital to expand sets of indicators.
it does not work did we find a smoking gun
It does not work… Did we find a smoking gun?
  • Integration policies and generally speaking attempts to integrate and accommodate migrants are failing in most of countries of EU27 due to structural reasons.
  • In fact, they will be remain unsuccessful without changes of a nation state character, constitutional changes, and precise definition of integration aims.
  • But very few changes occurred in a sphere of de-ethnization of public policies. Discrepancy between multi-identities post-modern era and 19th century type of nation state in EU27 is visible and destructive for integration attempts.
  • In spite of adopting all possible legal norms on protection of minorities (both autochtonous and new), equal status of minorities has not been secured so far in most of countries of the EU27.
integration in 21st century what do we mean by it
Integration in 21st century - what do we mean by it?
  • „There is no single, generally accepted definition, theory or model of immigrant integration. The concept continues to be controversial and hotly debated“ (Castles, 2001).
  • „Integration is a chaotic concept: a word used by many but understood differently by most“ (Robinson, 1998).
  • Terminology: Integration? Or incorporation? Accommodation? Inclusion? Culturalization? Naturalization?
  • Precise terminology might help, but we should rather tackle 2 issues:
  • 1. „Never-ending story…“ Integration is never-ending process, linear type of thinking is misleading.
  • 2. „This is the end of the world as we know it“ Integration as we know it from 20th century lost its meaning due to globalization processes and multilayer identities of people. Life „on the road“ and transnational perspective call for paradigmal shift in our understanding of integration.
what you see is not what you get
What you see is not what you get…
  • Integration attempts fails also due to inconsistency of „goals of integration“ and rising demands on the side of dominant cultures.
  • Migrants are not offered what they might have expected within liberal democratic regime that fosters equality (What you see is not what you get…)
core of the problem how to become part of the core
Core of the problem…How to become part of the core.
  • Integration in both social and civic terms rests on the concept of equal  opportunities for all. In socio-economic terms, migrants must have equal opportunities to lead just as dignified, independent and active lives as the rest of the population.
  • Equality. Is it enough?
  • Integration is successful when migrants become part of the core in all aspects of life - social, societal, economic, cultural, and symbolic ones.Integration cannot be successful in situation when migrants have problems to penetrate into the core of society.
  • Pre-conditions for becoming part of the core:
  • 1. Equal status (citizenship policies, equal rights)
  • 2. De-etnization of public sphere;
  • 3. Shift toward political nation;
  • 4. Culturally neutral state;
  • 5. De-racialization of interactions between citizens.
unpleasant problem lack of data on ethnicity
Unpleasant problem - Lack of data on ethnicity
  • Data are either unusable in general, or it is necessary to approach them and use them carefully. This is a common problem of both academic and public policy research.
  • The problem is, however, broader. Banal nationalism and methodological nationalistic approach in a research can be found also on the side of researchers:
  • 1. Inacceptance of „multilayer“ identities. Cultural differences are perceived as objectively existing, analysis are deriving from premises of fundamental relevance of cultural differences;
  • 2. Researchers very often accept and study only one identity;
  • 3. Often the concept of race is not accepted as a social construct;
  • 4. Researchers are not courageous enough to challenge policy makers.
potential negative outcomes of measuring integration processes
Potential negative outcomes of measuring integration processes
  • Neo-liberal shift toward efficiency of money spending on a research call for practical results.
  • Measuring level of integration of minorities and cost-effectiveness analysis might lead to nasty outcomes and confirming stereotypes toward migrants. The worst practice would be attempt to prepare „rankings“ of migrant integration.
i indicators of integration basic
I - Indicators of integration - basic
  • 1. Language;
  • 2. Integration within the Educational system;
  • 3. Social integration;
  • 4. Political integration;
  • 5. Economic integration;
  • 6. Residential integration.
ii indicators of integration intervening variables
II - Indicators of integration – intervening variables
  • Level of inequality within a country
  • Level of social exclusion
  • Index MAR (minorities in risk) – score of polarization
  • Level of state interventions
  • Level of security within a country
  • Working standards (ILO)
  • Score of democracy (level of openness of institutions)
  • Score of liberties (political and civic rights)
iii cultural i ndicators of integration it s culture stupid
III – Cultural indicators of integration?„It´s culture, stupid…!“
  • Social capital (bonding, bridging, linking)
  • Level of anomy
  • Level of cultural and social alienation from a society
  • Perception of poverty in a country
  • Satisfaction with a life
  • Etnization of concept of citizenship
  • Countries with high score in integration policies are increasingly ones with successful integration processes.
  • However, in order to measure and assess successes of integration process itself we should move beyond legal-political indicators that measure policies of particular countries. Otherwise we will have just in-depth going knowledge of pre-conditions for migrant incorporation.