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HO15 Midterm Review


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    1. Nutrition HO-15 Midterm Review

    2. Nutrients • Nutrients • Water • Carbohydrates • Fat • Protein • Vitamins • Minerals

    3. Nutrients • Nutrients - Organic • Water • Carbohydrates • Fat • Protein • Vitamins • Minerals

    4. Nutrients • Nutrients - Energy Yielding • Water • Carbohydrates • Fat • Protein • Vitamins • Minerals

    5. Nutrients • Nutrients - Energy Yielding • Water • Carbohydrates 4 calories/g • Fat 9 calories/g • Protein 4 calories/g • Vitamins • Minerals

    6. Nutrients • Nutrients - Energy Yielding • Water • Carbohydrates • Fat • Protein • Vitamins • Minerals

    7. Nutrients • Nutrients - Energy Yielding Muffin 280 calories (45 g) • 15 g CHO 15X4 = 60 calories • 20 g fat 20X9 = 180 calories • 10 g protein 10X4 = 40 calories 280 calories

    8. Recognizing a healthy diet • Adequacy - getting enough • Balance - proportionality • Moderation - nothing in excess • Variety - wide selection • Calorie Control - not too much or too little

    9. Research • Double blinded study • Placebo controlled • Intervention • Epidemiologic

    10. Research • Double blinded study • Placebo controlled • Interventional • Epidemiologic Gold Standard: Double Blind Placebo Controlled Randomized Clinical Trial

    11. Nutrient Density • Muffin # 1 • 280 calories • 20 g fat (15 g saturated fat) • 10 g sugar • Less than 2% daily value: Fe, Ca, Vit. A & C • Muffin #2 • 200 calories • 15 g fat (2 g saturated fat) • 4 g sugar (10 g whole grain CHO) • 10-15% daily value: Fe, Ca Vit. A & C

    12. Macronutrients Percent of Total Calories Carbohydrates 45-65% Fat 20-35% Protein 10-35% (10-15%)

    13. Macronutrients Example: Carbohydrates 45% Fat 30% Protein 25% TOTAL 100%

    14. Phytochemicals • Biologically active substance in plants • Non-nutrient • May protect against chronic disease • Anti-oxidants • Example: Soy, chocolate, flaxseed, tomatoes, garlic, wine, tea

    15. Mouth Stomach Liver Gallbladder Pancreas Small Intestine Colon

    16. Mouth - chews, mixes food with saliva Stomach - Liver - Gallbladder - Pancreas - Small Intestine- Colon -

    17. Mouth - chews, mixes food with saliva Stomach - mixes & churns food into a chyme. Denatures (uncoils) protein Liver - Gallbladder - Pancreas - Small Intestine- Colon -

    18. Mouth - chews, mixes food with saliva Stomach - mixes & churns food into a chyme. Denatures (uncoils) protein Liver - makes bile Gallbladder - Pancreas - Small Intestine- Colon -

    19. Mouth - chews, mixes food with saliva Stomach - mixes & churns food into a chyme. Denatures (uncoils) protein Liver - makes bile Gallbladder - stores bile Pancreas - Small Intestine- Colon -

    20. Mouth - chews, mixes food with saliva Stomach - mixes & churns food into a chyme. Denatures (uncoils) protein Liver - makes bile Gallbladder - stores bile Pancreas - secretes digestive enzymes Small Intestine- Colon

    21. Mouth - chews, mixes food with saliva Stomach - mixes & churns food into a chyme. Denatures (uncoils) protein Liver - makes bile Gallbladder - stores bile Pancreas - secretes digestive enzymes Small Intestine-enzymes break down fat, protein, CHO & absorbed Colon -

    22. Mouth - chews, mixes food with saliva Stomach - mixes & churns food into a chyme. Denatures (uncoils) protein Liver - makes bile Gallbladder - stores bile Pancreas - secretes digestive enzymes Small Intestine- enzymes break down fat, protein, CHO & absorbed Colon - fluid and minerals absorption & some fiber fragments absorbed

    23. Storage Organs When we eat too much…… • Carbohydrate - it is stored as • Fat - it is stored as • Protein - it is stored as

    24. Storage Organs When we eat too much…… • Carbohydrate (glucose) - it is stored as • glycogen in liver and muscle • fat in adipose cells • Fat - it is stored as • Protein - it is stored as

    25. Storage Organs When we eat too much…… • Carbohydrate (glucose) - it is stored as • glycogen in liver and muscle • fat in adipose cells • Fat - it is stored as • Fat in adipose cells • Protein - it is stored as

    26. Storage Organs When we eat too much…… • Carbohydrate (glucose) - it is stored as • glycogen in liver and muscle • fat in adipose cells • Fat - it is stored as • Fat in adipose cells • Protein - it is stored as • Fat in adipose cells • Note: protein is not stored in the body

    27. Carbohydrates • Simple or Complex?

    28. Carbohydrates • Simple or Complex? Simple!

    29. Simple Carbohydrates Monosaccharides Disaccharides

    30. Complex Carbohydrates Starch Fiber Glycogen fiber glycogen

    31. Fiber

    32. Which part of the wheat kernel Has fiber?

    33. Which part of the wheat kernel has fiber? Bran Which part of the wheat kernel has starch?

    34. Which part of the wheat kernel has fiber? Bran Which part of the wheat kernel has starch? Endosperm Which part of the wheat kernel has nutrients & protein?

    35. Which part of the wheat kernel has fiber? Bran Which part of the wheat kernel has starch? Endosperm Which part of the wheat kernel has nutrients & protein? Germ Which part of the wheat kernel is not edible?

    36. Which part of the wheat kernel has fiber? Bran Which part of the wheat kernel has starch? Endosperm Which part of the wheat kernel has nutrients & protein? Germ Which part of the wheat kernel is not edible? Husk

    37. List the appropriate sequence of events which happen after you eat a plain white bagel: • I. Starch starts to breakdown into maltose in the mouth • II. Maltose breaks down into glucose in the small intestines • III. Glucose is absorbed from the small intestines into the bloodstream • IV. The pancreas secretes insulin in response to high blood glucose • V. Insulin transports glucose from the bloodstream into cells • VI. Blood glucose decreases

    38. Insulin & Glucose insulin glucose Insulin receptor Glucose transported across cell

    39. Diabetes (Type I & II) • Onset

    40. Diabetes (Type I & II) • Onset • Type I - typically childhood • Type II - typically adulthood - recently seen developing in childhood

    41. Diabetes (Type I & II) • Cause • Type I - • Type II -

    42. Diabetes (Type I & II) • Cause • Type I - autoimmune disease, insulin secreting cells impaired • Type II - acquired, insulin resistance, obesity, genetics, diet

    43. Diabetes (Type I & II) • Insulin secretion • Type I - • Type II -

    44. Diabetes (Type I & II) • Insulin secretion • Type I - no natural insulin • Type II - enough or too much insulin

    45. Lipids Triglycerides (TG) • ≈95% of all lipids in foods and the human body • Phospholipids • For example, lecithin • Sterols • For example, cholesterol P

    46. Fats

    47. Percent of Calories from Fat • Hamburger • 500 calories • 25 g saturated fat

    48. Percent of Calories from Fat • Hamburger • 500 calories • 25 g saturated fat 25 g X 9 calories/g = 225 calories