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Varieties of American Nationalism. Chapter 8. Defining an Era. After the War of 1812, two things were on the minds of most Americans Was slavery going to continue to be a part of the national identity and economy?

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Defining an era
Defining an Era

  • After the War of 1812, two things were on the minds of most Americans

    • Was slavery going to continue to be a part of the national identity and economy?

    • Would the new Western states align politically and economically with the North or the South?

Building a national market
Building A National Market

  • Following the War of 1812, there was a short but significant economic boom…then a quick bust.

  • The United States made a move in the post war years towards industrialization and a new economy but it lacked the necessary institutions (transportation, standardized banking) to sustain long term growth.

Banking currency protection
Banking, Currency, Protection

  • After the War of 1812…

    • Manufacturing

    • Shipping

    • State Banks issue bank notes of varying worth, creating interstate consumer uncertainty. WHY?

    • A National Bank is needed to stabilize the currency and set a banking standard

    • Congress forms the SECOND BANK OF THE UNITED STATES in 1791

      • The banks size gave it power not any laws

The textile boom 1807 1815
The Textile Boom: 1807-1815

  • The POWER LOOM provides for faster cloth production to consume the mass amounts of cotton produced by the plantation system of the South.

  • Industry begins to take root in the North to offset the loss of shipping business

  • New Banking system provides for capital investment

The textile boom 1807 18151
The Textile Boom:1807-1815

  • After the War of 1812 American ports were again open to British goods.

  • British merchants flood the U.S. with cheap goods to suppress American Industry and growth.

  • Congress passes Protective Tariffs in 1816 to keep cheap British goods off of American shelves and help American industry


  • The new economy, based on manufacturing and industry, demanded better, faster transportation

  • Private industry looks for solutions

Key Question:

Should the Federal Government, using Federal tax dollars, build public roads?


  • The NATIONAL ROAD—a road built between the Potomac River and the Ohio River using funds from the sale of land in Ohio.

  • Solves the transportation problem and the funding problem


  • Steam Powered ships bring goods North and South along the Mississippi River and eventually the Erie Canal, opening up the West to Eastern goods.

  • Steam Ships stimulate the agrarian economy of the South and West


I’M bringing sexy back!

  • On the East Coast there is a difficulty shipping goods North and South because of no good road and rough waters

  • Calhoun helps pass bill to build a national N/S road

  • Madison vetoes it his last day as president because he feels the bill oversteps the powers of congress to make “National Improvements”

Expanding westward
Expanding Westward

  • In 1810, 1 out of every 7 white Americans lived West of the Appalachians.

  • In 1820, 1 out of every 4 white Americans lived West of the Appalachians

  • Regional political powers is in a state of constant flux

The great migrations
The Great Migrations

  • Reasons for Expansion:

    • Pressure over land, resources, jobs, and capital, due to the growing population in the East

      • 1800—5.3 million Americans

      • 1820—9.6 million Americans

    • The West becomes more attractive to Americans

      • War of 1812 eliminated Native American threat

      • U.S. Government builds forts in the territories

      • Midwest is attractive to farmers

The plantation system in the southwest
The Plantation System in the Southwest

  • Cotton grows very well in Alabama and Mississippi drawing plantation owners West with prospects of huge profits and cheap land.

  • Spreads the “Plantation System” and slavery West

  • Growth adds 4 new states:

Indiana: 1816

Mississippi: 1817

Illinois: 1818

Alabama: 1819

Trade and trapping in the far west
Trade and Trapping in the Far West

  • Trade with Mexico opens in 1821 when it gains independence from Spain, bringing traders further West and South.

  • Fur becomes a big business all across the West

  • White fur traders move into the Great Lakes and the Rockies where once only Native American trappers traded.

  • These traders became known as MOUNTAIN MEN

The mountain man
The Mountain Man

Mr. Flessa’s Beard Goal

  • The MOUNTAIN MAN becomes a character of myth and legend

  • Men who live off the land, alone for months at a time, trapping/hunting beaver, moose, bear, buffalo.

  • Romanticizes the West

  • Creates a level of misunderstanding among most Easterners of what the West really is.

The era of good feelings
The Era of Good Feelings

  • As the economy grew, the West opened to White expansion, and new states joined the union a general “Good Feeling” spread throughout the US.

  • Americans were feeling good about themselves

The end of the first party system
The End of the First Party System

  • Since John Adams Virginians controlled the White House. (1800-1824)

    • Jefferson

    • Madison

    • Monroe

  • This became known as the “VIRGINIA DYNASTY”

  • The Republican Virginians dominated politics for 25 years.

The easy presidency of monroe
The Easy Presidency of Monroe

  • By the time James Monroe becomes president, the country is on a roll.

  • Monroe takes the opportunity of a strong economy and peace at home to “strengthen” America’s image around the world.

  • He took a “GOODWILL TOUR” across America, for the first time making the President a very public figure.

The monroe doctrine
The Monroe Doctrine

  • James Monroe issues a statement to the world that asserts U.S. Supremacy and warns European powers against any attempts to colonize the Americas

  • This Doctrine has been adopted by many presidents who believe that America should be the leading force of the world.

John quincy adams and florida
John Quincy Adams and Florida

  • Adams becomes President in 1824 breaking the Virginia Dynasty but continuing the tradition of electing presidents from within previous administrations.

  • Adams was a diplomat, intellectual, and worldly.

  • His goal as president was American expansion

  • He set his sights on annexing the rest of Florida

Seminole wars
Seminole Wars

  • The U.S. held West Florida but wanted East Florida from the Spanish.

  • Adams began negotiating with Spanish Minister Luis de Onis.

  • Jackson, in control of the American Army in the South, was ordered by Secretary of War Calhoun to stop raids on American settlers by the Seminole Indians.

  • Jackson used this excuse to invade Florida and take it from the Seminoles and the Spanish

  • Adams took responsibility for the action saying it was America’s right to take the Pennisula

  • In 1819 Spain ceded the rest of Florida to the U.S. with the Adams-Onis Treaty.

Panic of 1819
Panic of 1819

  • As the nation grew its demand for capital and markets grew as well.

  • In 1819 banks had loaned out more money than they had, as they started to call in loans, people didn’t have the money to pay and the economy went bust.

  • This crisis weakened the idea that America was unstoppable.

  • With the BOOM… came a BUST

Practice mountain man thesis writing
Practice Mountain Man Thesis Writing

The Fur Trade

The Stuff of Legends

How did the Mountain Man stand in contradiction to how he was perceived in the east?

  • The early 19th Century Mountain Man operated in reliance on an established economic system that hindered his independence. Analyze the validity of this claim.

Jedediah Smith

  • How did the life of Smith reflect the duel role Indians had in the life of a Mountain Man?

James Bridger

How did men like James Bridger contribute to the legend/myth of the Mountain Man?

Practice mountain man thesis writing1
Practice Mountain Man Thesis Writing

Jedediah Smith

James Bridger

How did men like James Bridger contribute to the legend/myth of the Mountain Man?

  • How id the life of Smith reflect the duel role Indians had in the life of a Mountain Man?