ascitesAbnormal amounts of serous fluids in the peritoneal cavity(abdomen)Causes: HTN, liver disease (alcholism), inflammation in abd
Borborygmusgurgling or rumbling sounds heard over large intestines as gas moves through
diverticular diseaseBulging pouches (diverticula) in GI tract that push the mucosal lining through muscle
DysenteryMany intestinal disorders – common in underdeveloped areasInflammation of the intestines- especially colonS&S: diarrhea, colitis. cramping
fistulaFistula is a permanent abnormal passageway between two organs in the body or between an organ and the exterior of the body. Fistulas can arise in any part of the body, but they are most common in the digestive tract
GERD Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a condition in which the gastric/stomach contents (food or liquid) backflow from the stomach into the esophagus (the tube from the mouth to the stomach). This action can irritate the esophagus, causing heartburn and other symptoms.
hematocheziaPassing stools with bright red bloodCancer, colitis, and ulcers are among causes of hematochezia.
hemorrhoidEnlarged twisted varicose veins inside or just outside the rectum.Also know as Piles
herniaProtrusion of an organ through the wall of the cavity that normally contains it.
IBD Inflammatory bowel disease Ulceration of the colon mucosa Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory disease of the large intestine, or colon. In ulcerative colitis, the inner lining (mucosa) of the intestine becomes inflamed and develops ulcers. Ulcerative colitis is often the most severe in the rectal area, which can cause frequent diarrhea. Mucus and blood often appear in the stool if the lining of the colon is damaged. Chronic IBD Crohn's disease differs from ulcerative colitis in the areas of the bowel it involves — it most commonly affects the last part of the small intestine (ileum) and parts of the large intestine. However, it isn't limited to these areas and can attack any part of the digestive tract. Crohn's disease causes inflammation that extends much deeper into the layers of the intestinal wall and generally tends to involve the entire bowel wall, whereas ulcerative colitis affects only the lining of the bowel. Chronic IBD also known as regional colitis
inflammatory bowel disease inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine. The major types of IBD are Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
Crohn diseaseCrohn’s disease is an ongoing disorder that causes inflammation of the digestive tract, also referred to as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Crohn’s disease can affect any area of the GI tract, from the mouth to the anus, but it most commonly affects the lower part of the small intestine, called the ileum. The swelling extends deep into the lining of the affected organ. The swelling can cause pain and can make the intestines empty frequently, resulting in diarrhea.
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)Irritable bowel syndrome is a disorder characterized most commonly by signs and symptoms -cramping, abdominal pain, bloating, constipation, and diarrhea. IBS causes a great deal of discomfort and distress, but it does not permanently harm the intestines and does not lead to a serious disease, such as cancer. Most people can control their symptoms with diet, stress management, and prescribed medications. No pathology (or reason). Called Spastic colon.
JaundiceNormally, about 1% of our red blood cells retire every day, to be replaced by fresh red blood cells. The old ones are handled by the liver. Bilirubin is left after blood cells are disposed of. It leaves the body in the stool.When too much bilirubin (yellow pigment) builds up in the body, jaundice may result. Jaundice can be caused by: Too many red blood cells retiring for the liver to handle (hyperbilirubinemia) The liver being overloaded or damaged The bilirubin from the liver is unable to move through the biliary tract biliary tract to the gut The skin may turn a yellow-to-orange color if you ingest too much beta carotene, the orange pigment in carrots. In this condition, the whites of the eyes remain white. People with true jaundice often have a yellowish tinge to the eyes.
obesity • Condition of accumulating an amount of fat that exceeds the body’s skeletal and physical standards • Increase of 20 percent or more of ideal body weight • Morbid Obesity • BMI of 40 or greater • Usually 100 lbs or more over ideal body weight
obesityObesity or the state of being overweight is defined as an excess of body fat that usually results in a significant impairment of health. A person is considered obese when the size or number of fat cells in his/her body exceeds the normal rate.
polypA polyp is a small tumorlikebenign growth projects from a mucous membrane. If it is attached to the surface by a narrow elongated stalk it is said to be pedunculated or on a pedicule. Polyps are commonly found in the colon, stomach, nose, sinus(es), urinary bladder, small intestines, cervix and uterus.
colonic polyposis Colonic polyps grow in the large intestine, or colon. Most polyps are not dangerous. However, some polyps may turn into cancer or already be cancer. To be safe, doctors remove polyps and test them. Polyps can be removed when a doctor examines the inside of the large intestine during a colonoscopy.
polyposisPolyposis describes a condition where there are a lot of polyps in the intestinal tract
UlcerOpen sores or lesions of the skin or mucous membrane accompanied by sloughing or inflamed necrotic tissueCan be shallow or deep- and be in the stomach (peptic ulcer), duodenal ulcer, or pressure ulcers (DQ)
VolvulusAbnormal twisting of the bowel/ intestine which can impair the blood flow to the intestine causing obstruction. Volvulus can lead to gangrene and death of that segment of the gastrointestinal tract, intestinal obstruction, perforation of the intestine, and peritonitis. The stomach, small intestine, cecum, and sigmoid colon are all subject to volvulus.
barium enema (BE)A barium enema, or lower gastrointestinal (GI) examination, is an X-ray /radiographic examination of the large intestine (colon and rectum). The test is used to help diagnose diseases and other problems that affect the large intestine. To make the intestine visible on an X-ray picture, the colon is filled with a contrast material containing barium sulfate through the rectum.
barium swallowRadiographic exam of the esophagus, stomach and small intestines after orally administering barium sulfateUpper GI seriesA barium swallow is a test that may be used to determine the cause of painful swallowing, difficulty with swallowing, abdominal pain, bloodstained vomit, or unexplained weight loss
CT ScanComputed Tomography • Radiological exam • Narrow beam of xray rotates in full arc • Cross sectional slices of images
endoscopy • Visual exam of a body cavity or canal with a lighted instrument called an endoscope. • Upper GI • Lower GI
upper endoscopy Upper GI endoscopy, referred to as EGD (esophagogastroduodenoscopy), is a visual examination of the upper intestinal tract using a lighted, flexible fiberoptic or video endoscope. The upper gastrointestinal tract begins with the mouth and continues with the esophagus (food tube) which carries food to the stomach.
lower endoscopy Endoscopy of the colon, sigmoid colon, rectum and anal canal. Used to remove polyps and identify problems in the colon.
MRIMagnetic Resonance Imaging • Radiographic exam • Uses electromagnectic energy • Multiplace cross sectional images
Stool guaiac • Test performed on feces • Reagent gum guaiacused to detect the presence of blood that is not apparent with visual inspection. • Also called hemoccult test
UltrasonographyInvolves exposing part of the body to high-frequency sound waves to produce pictures of the inside of the body. Ultrasound exams do not use ionizing radiation (as used in x-rays). Because ultrasound images are captured in real-time, they can show the structure and movement of the body's internal organs, as well as blood flowing through blood vessels.
bariatric surgery • Group of procedures to treat morbid obesity • Vertical banded gastroplasty • Upper stomach stapled and a band inserted to restrict and delays food from leaving the pouch. • Causes a person to feel full • Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RGB) • Stomach is stapled and the jejunum is shortened and connected to it, causing a Y configuration to form. • Decreases the pathway for food and reduces absorption of calories and fats
lithotripsy • Procedure for eliminating a stone within the gallbladder or urinary system by crushing the stone. • ESWL (extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy) • Use of shock waves in a noninvasive manner to destroy stones in the gallbladder and biliary ducts.
nasogastric intubation • Insertion of a nasogastric (NG) tube through the nose into the stomach. • Relieves distension • Removes secretions or food • Give meds, food, or fluids through • Obtain lab analysis