ISSUES IN FAMILY CARE IN KERALA&ADOPTION SCENARIO IN KERALA MEENA KURUVILLAPROJECT CO-ORDINATOR ADOPTION CO-ORDINATING AGENCYRAJAGIRI COLLEGE OF SOCIAL SCIENCES,KERALA
ISSUES IN FAMILY CARE IN KERALA • Families in Kerala are facing challenges because of changes of structure of family, globalization, lack of role models of parents, lack of spirituality and erosion of culture and values. • So it is an urgent need to speak about the importance of family and the need to support families and communities. Children are the victims of family violence. In Kerala sexual violence is also increasing day by day, the women and children are the victims of such violence. These violence are human made disasters.
ISSUES IN FAMILY CARE IN KERALA • Nowadays, children are insecure in their own families. Most of the parents are employed and they are not spending quality time with their children. Alcoholism is very common in most of the families in Kerala. Drug abuse and alcoholism among children are also increasing. • Sexual abuse cases of children are reported frequently and the most painful factor in these cases are that some of the children were abused by their own parents and family members. So this is the need of the hour to think collectively about the proper upbringing of children, role of parents and the importance of family in the society.
ISSUES IN FAMILY CARE IN KERALA • Marital Dispute • Domestic Violence • Alcoholism • Substance Abuse • Poverty- Financial Constraints • Working Parents • Divorce, separation or death of parents • Extra marital Relationship of Parents
ISSUES IN FAMILY CARE IN KERALA • Unhealthy Competition of parents • Restrictions/control by the parents • Over protection by parents • Over Expectation of parents • Over Anxiety of parents • Parents are not spending quality time with children • Child Neglect • Crime tendency increasing • Teenage pregnancy
ISSUES IN FAMILY CARE IN KERALA • Materialistic way of Love and Affection by the parents • Lack of Responsibility • Missing and Runaway • Sibling Rivalry • Stress Disorders-Depression ,Suicide Tendency • Sleeping and Eating Disorders
ISSUES IN FAMILY CARE IN KERALA • Migrated Families • Lack of open communication in families • Lack of trust in families • Problems from step- parents • Physical and Sexual abuse within the families • Treat the child as a sexual object in some families • Exploitation of Children
ISSUES IN FAMILY CARE IN KERALA • Parents are not aware about Child Rights. • Lack of mutually respectful relationship in families. • Special need children are not getting proper care and protection. • Malnutrition. • School dropouts are increasing due to neglect. • Child marriage is still existing.
ISSUES IN FAMILY CARE IN KERALA • Influences of media • Cyber crimes are increasing. • Lack of role model of parents in family - poor parenting (unfit parents). • Lack of primary needs of love, stimulus, security and empathy in family . • Erosion of values and spirituality
FAMILY BASED REHABILITATION OF CHILDREN • Adoption • Foster care • Sponsorship
Specialized Adoption Agencies in Kerala • Total Number of Specialized Adoption Agencies in Kerala : 20 • Recognized Adoption Placement Agencies : 5 ( Inter- country) • Licensed Adoption Placement Agencies : 20 ( In- country) • Government Children’s Home : 13
Distribution of Specialized Adoption Agencies in Kerala Distribution of Specialized Adoption Agencies in Kerala Recognized/ Licensed Adoption Placement Agencies---20 Government Children's Homes --13 Recognized/ Licensed Adoption Placement Agencies---18 Thiruvananthapuram……..2- . Kottayam …….3 Idukki ………………….2 Alappuzha …………… 1 Ernakulam…………… .3 Thrissur………………….3 Palakkad…………………1 Kannur …………………1 Wayanad……………… .1 Kozhokode…………… 1 Thiruvananthapuram…2 Kottayam …. 3 Idukki …………………. 4 Alappuzha …………… 1 Ernakulam…………… 3 Thrissur………………… 3 Palakkad……………… 1 Kannur ………………… 1 Wayanad……………… 1 Kozhokode…………… 1
ADOPTION DATABASE IN KERALA FROM 1ST APRIL 1990 TO 2012 MARCH In-country Inter- Country 4590 968 ( Including NRI) Male Female Male Female 2102 2488 444 524 Grand Total - 5558
YEAR WISE DISTRIBUTION OF IN-COUNTRY & INTER-COUNTRY ADOPTIONS IN KERALA FROM 1ST APRIL 1990 TO 31ST MARCH 2012
GENDER WISE DISTRIBUTION OF ADOPTIONS (IN-COUNTRY & INTER-COUNTRY) IN KERALA FROM 1ST APRIL 1990 TO 31ST MARCH 2012
GENDER WISE DISTRIBUTION OF IN-COUNTRY ADOPTIONS IN KERALA FROM 1ST APRIL 1990 TO 31ST MARCH 2012
GENDER WISE DISTRIBUTION OF INTER-COUNTRY ADOPTIONS IN KERALA FROM 1ST APRIL 1990 TO 31ST MARCH 2012
SPECIAL FEATURES OF ADOPTION IN KERALA • Prospective adoptive parents prefer to adopt female children in Kerala • Prospective parents from neighbouring states (Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh) are coming to Kerala for adopting male children. • Families with adopted children/biological children are coming forward for second adoption. • More single parents are coming for adoption
SPECIAL FEATURES OF ADOPTION IN KERALA(Continued……………………) • Joint efforts taken by Social Justice Department , ACA , Specialized Adoption Agencies and KAFO in organizing adoptive parents get-together and observation of AWW. • More child welfare agencies are coming forward for adoption through Reach-out visits • Kerala has succeeded in initiating and streamlining a positive trend in favour of in-country adoption • Greater awareness on Legal Adoption among public through Mass media coverage helped in lessening the social taboos prevailing in the society regarding adoption.
SPECIAL FEATURES OF ADOPTION IN KERALA(Continued • CWCs, Police and Child line helped to identify more adoptable children. • Adoption Recommendation Committee(ARC) is constituted by the Social Justice Department. • Relevant orders regarding issue of birth certificate of adopted children has been issued by state govt. • Research study by ACA-Kerala on Adoptees in the Adolescent Age is progressing.
SHORTCOMINGS & DIFFICULTIES • Four Districts named Kollam, Pathanamthitta, Malapuram and Kasargod do not have Specialized Adoption Agencies. • All Specialized adoption agencies are not registered under JJ Act. • Adoptable children are stuck in other child welfare agencies. • Illegal transactions of babies through hospitals.
SHORTCOMINGS & DIFFICULTIESCont…………….. • Lack of proper awareness about new CARA guideline. • Delay in getting legally free for adoption certificate from CWCs in some districts. • Lack of training for social workers, care takers and adoption in-charge of agencies. • Some of the Guardianship cases are not finalized under JJ Act.
SHORTCOMINGS & DIFFICULTIESCont…………….. • Lack of awareness among local authorities causes delay in issuing birth certificate for adopted children. • Issues regarding surrender before CWC and production of child before CWC. • Do not have a uniform procedure for CWC to declare the child legally free for adoption. • Childcare standards should be improved in some agencies. • Number of children admitted to SAAs are coming down.
SHORTCOMINGS & DIFFICULTIESCont…………….. • More efforts should be taken for the placement of special need children in domestic adoption. • Duplication is still there in the registration of prospective adoptive parents • Legal hazards in finalizing some of the foster care placements as adoption
SHORTCOMINGS & DIFFICULTIESCont…. • Number of adoptable children are very less when compared to prospective adoptive couples • Very few Research studies are conducted . • Delay in getting renewal of License/Recognition, and Grant – in Aid from the State Govt. & Central Govt. • SARA is not constituted in the State.
POST ADOPTION ISSUES • Adoptive families with adolescent children face problems like telling issue, poor academic performance, adjustmental problems etc.. • Lack of proper adoption counselling facilities. • Lack of awareness among local authorities in issuing birth certificate of adopted children
Foster care • Substitute family care for a temporary or long term period for a child when the family is not in a position to provide care and security for him or her. • The foster parents should be declared by the CWC as fit persons who are able to provide the child with his or her basic needs.
Foster care • Consent of older children should be sought before being placed in a foster family. • Foster care for: • preventing institutionalization • strengthening de-institutionalization • The children who cannot be placed in adoption can be placed into foster care by the Child Welfare Committee (Section 42, JJ Act 2000).
Sponsorship • Sponsorship programme provides supplementary support to the families, children's homes and special homes to meet the medical, nutritional, and educational needs of the children with a view of improving their quality of life (Section 43, JJ Act 2000).
SUGGESTIONS All personnel involved in the Juvenile Justice System must take up challenging roles in managing child related issues and protecting the rights of children. The following are suggestions for improving the current situation of children in need of care and protection; • The Integrated Child Protection Scheme (ICPS), introduced by the Government of India to protect the rights of the children, should be enforced by the State Government as early as possible.
SUGGESTIONS • All personnel involved in the Juvenile Justice System should receive regular training about child rights and the Juvenile Justice Act. Government officials, police officers, members of CWCs and JJBs, lawyers, social workers, NGOs, the Private Bus Owner’s Association, railway police and railway station Masters, the Hotel Association, Residence Association, local bodies and the general public should also have consultation meetings and awareness programmes about these child rights.
SUGGESTIONS • After placing a child into adoption or foster care, the family should be monitored and evaluated with regular follow up visits. • The existing sponsorship programme should be enforced for the families who are facing poverty. The government should grant them sponsorship to help improve their family circumstances and avoid the placement of their children in institutions. • Life skill training should be given to our children for becoming self reliant and self protected.
SUGGESTIONS Provide value based education to children. • Spread awareness about the rights of children and rights of the families. • Conduct research studies concentrating on families and child care institutions .This will help the Govt to make policies more effective. • Need to establish a “girl friendly” approach and educate about gender equality.
SUGGESTIONS • The government should frame guidelines for foster care and sponsorship. • There should be more recognized and easily accessible shelter homes in the cities for the children. • Proper awareness on Child rights should be given to our Children,Parents and teachers.
SUGGESTIONS • Kerala Juvenile Justice Rules should be finalized at the earliest. • Strengthen teacher-student relationship • Strengthen parent -teacher relationship • Provide the services of a trained professionally qualified counsellor in Schools. • Help the families to avail Child line Services.
In Kerala the joint effort taken by Hon’ble Courts, Central Adoption Resource Authority ( CARA,Govt. of. India),Social Justice Department,Govt of Kerala, CWC, Adoption Coordinating Agency (ACA), Specialised Adoption Agencies, Police and Child line helped to place more children in suitable Indian families.
There is an urgent need to think and work collectively to protect the children’s rights and grant these children their basic needs. • They are helpless in their current situations. • So it is the responsibility of the Hon’ble Courts, families, government ,Child Rights Commission, Police ,Child Line ,NGOs and society to save them from situations that lead to the violation of their rights.