DISASTER RISK REDUCTION. A PRIMER OF KNOWLEDGE THAT CAN MULTIPLY AND SPILL OVER FOR THE BENEFIT OF MILLIONS. Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, University of North Carolina, USA http://www.gadr.giees.uncc.edu.
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DISASTER RISK REDUCTION A PRIMER OF KNOWLEDGE THAT CAN MULTIPLY AND SPILL OVER FOR THE BENEFIT OF MILLIONS Walter Hays, Global Alliance for Disaster Reduction, University of North Carolina, USA http://www.gadr.giees.uncc.edu
REMEMBERING 2O10: Part I. JANUARY – MARCH REDUCTION OF EL NINO, EARTHQUAKES, MUDFLOWS, EUROPEAN WINDSTORM, NOR’EASTER, VOLCANIC ERUPTION, AND FLOODS,
IMPACTED NATIONS Caribbean Nations, China, Haiti, Chile, Indonesia, France, Portugal, Spain, Belgium, Germany, Turkey, China, …
IMPACTED NATIONS (continued) … Madeira (Portugal), USA (California, North Dakota, Minnesota, Mid-Atlantic States), Brazil, Peru, Russia,Mexico, Iceland (Europe,---), Taiwan
Over two hundred-twenty thousand people killed and even more injured. Millions of homes without power, damaged, destroyed, or inundated. Tens of millions displaced, and the lives and livelihoods of hundreds of millions adversely affected. Millions without adequate water SOCIETAL IMPACTS DURING 2010
Infrastructure damaged and destroyed. Health care needs sharply increased. $ Tens of billions in insured and uninsured economic losses. $ 2 Billion lost from disrupted air traffic SOCIETAL IMPACTS DURING 2010 (Continued)
EL NINO INCREASED LIKELIHOOD OF DISASTERS IN SOME LOCALES El Nino created favorable con-ditions for floods, Nor’easters, an increase in Pacific storms, AND a decrease in Atlanticstorms and drought in the Caribbean.
DROUGHT THE CARIBBEAN WESTERN CHINA
CARIBBEAN COUNTRIES FACING DROUGHT DURING 2010 DROUGHT ATTRIBUTED TO EL NIÑO
DROUGHT CONDITIONS EXCERBATED BY EL NIÑO • El Niño causes warming of the Pacific Ocean, which in turn causes Atlantic and Caribbean waters to be cooler.
SAINT LUCIA BARBADOS SAINT VINCENT and the GRENADINES GRENADA ANTIGUA and BARBUDA JAMACIA GUYANA TRINIDAD and TOBAGO CARIBBEAN COUNTRIES EXPRIENCING DROUGHT IN 2010
DROUGHT HAZARDS • HIGHER TEMPERATURES • LOWER HUMIDITY • LESS WATER IN THE SYSTEM • LOW WATER TABLES; VANISHING STREAMS, AND LAKES
After living with worsening drought conditions from October 2009 to January 2010, the Caribbean Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology (CIHM) in St. James, Barbados, issued drought alerts for the Eastern Caribbean.
In 2009 the Saint Lucia Met Office indicated that the rainfall for September 2009 was the lowest on record for Castries since 1967 and the 5th lowest for Vieux Fort Since 1973.
Regional technical specialists classify this situation as an agricultural drought (short term), althougheach country has communities that are already severely impacted.
Unusually dry conditions are presently causing bush fires in Trinidad and Saint Lucia, raising concern about watershed damage and the potential increase in flood risks later in 2010 and future years.
During the last half of 2009, severely dry conditions were experienced in Grenada, causing an increased demand for irrigation water, a reduction in stream flow, and adepletion of water resources.
CAUSES OF RISK PROLONGED LACK OF PRECIPITATION LOSS OF SOIL MOSTURE LOSS OF AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTIVITY DEPLETION/POLLUTION OF GROUND WATER DROUGHTS LOSS OF VEGETATION DISASTER LABORATORIES INSECT INFESTATION LOSS OF LAND FROM DESERTIFICATION
DROUGHT RISKS • LOSS OF LIFE: PEOPLE AND LIVESTOCK • LOSS OF LIVELIHOODS • LOSS OF HABITAT (e.g., from desertification) • BRUSH FIRES AND POSSIBLE FAMINE
EXAMPLE: Guyana is living with water shortages that are now adversely affecting 10,000 acres of rice land as well as livestock and other crops.
All the governments in the drought-affected countries have issued alerts to their populations and have begun promoting water conservation measures
EXAMPLE: Since the drought started, Guyana has allocated $1.2 million US dollars ininfrastructure (e.g., drainage and irrigation systems) to support farmers countrywide.
Guyana has allocated resources to raise awareness among farmers that scarce resources need to be shared during this difficult time and provided information on dietary supplements, molasses, feed and vetenary assistance.
17 MILLION IN WESTERN CHINA WITHOUT ADEQUATE WATER Drought has gripped huge areas of Guizhou, Yunnan, and Sichuan provinces, the Guangxi region, and the mega-city of Chongqing since September, 2009, with rainfall now 60 % below normal
EARTHQUAKES HAITI CHILE TURKEY INDONESIA CHINA TAIWAN
M7.0 EARTHQUAKE STRIKES HAITI THE WESTERN HEMISPHERE’S POOREST NATION WITH 8 IN 10 AT POVERTY LEVEL 4:53 p.m.; JANUARY 12, 2010
SOCIETAL IMPACTS • The lives of 3 million+ Haitians were adversely impacted. • The Dominion Republic, Haiti’s neighbor, which experienced a M8.0 earthquake and tsunami in 1946 on a thrust fault, escaped with minimal impacts, but remains at high risk in future quakes.
CATASTROPHIC DEATH TOLL OF 220,000+ • The estimate of 220,000+ casualties became reality after burial in mass graves and search and rescue by Haitian and Int’l teams ended, and the rubble of thousands of collapsed buildings was cleared.
INFRASTRUCTURE DAMAGE • Power was knocked out. • Communication was disrupted. • Utility service was interrupted. • Roads were damaged. • The airport’s control tower was badly damaged, limiting useage. • The port was damaged.
M8.8 EARTHQUAKE STRIKES CENTRAL CHILE:3:34 am on February 27, 2010 Subduction Zone Quake 500 Times More Energy than the M7.0 Haiti Quake 800+ Deaths; 500+ Injured Numerous Aftershocks Tsunami Waves Travel Across Pacific Estimated Loss: $30 Billion
The Chilean people had to cope with the demands associated with: 1) a mega-quake, 2) a vigorous aftershock sequence with large events, 3) tsunami wave run up, 4) looting by some of the affluent sector, and 5) recovery after the loss of 15 percent of the GDP.
TSUNAMI(after the Chile earthquake) LOCAL AND PACIFIC- WIDE IMPACTS FROM THE FEBRUARY 27, 2010 CHILE EARTHQUAKE
M6.1 EARTHQUAKE STRIKES EASTERN TURKEY AT 4:32 AM THREE VILLAGES DESTROYED ALONG WITH MANY FARM ANIMALS AT LEAST 57 DEAD MARCH 8, 2010