Specialty Vehicle and Engine Testing Section (SVETS)Mobile Source Operations DivisionPablo CiceroApril 12, 2012 4th Information Session
Why Regulate and Test Small Off-Road Engines? • In general, very limited emission controls • Some are two-stroke and have less efficient combustion • High potential for user exposure to elevated pollutant concentrations • Becoming a bigger proportion of the inventory as other sources are reduced • Emission Rates: • 1 string trimmer = 8 passenger cars (HC+NOx) • 1 generator = 23 passenger cars (HC+NOx) • Verify certification emissions
Why Regulate and Test Motorcycles or ATVs? • Motorcycles emit 8 times more ozone forming compounds compared to LEVs and more than 40 times SULEVs • State’s on-road motorcycles are 4% of the vehicles, and drive 1% of the miles, but emit 7% of the on-road ROG and CO • Some off-highway vehicles (OHVs) have no emission controls (red stickers) • Tampering may be prevalent
SVETS Capabilities Cell 4 tests LDV/MDVs including 4WD/AWD vehicles. A new analyzer bench and bag sampling unit are being purchased in order to accurately measure emissions below SULEV standards. Cell 5 tests motorcycles (MC), all-terrain vehicles (ATV), off-road utility vehicles, and small off-road engines up to 50 HP.
Advantages of Laboratory Dyno Testing • Control over dynamic variables: speed, distance, acceleration, road load, grade • Control over environmental variables: temperature, and (to some extent) humidity • Ability to measure exhaust and background concentrations • Ability to measure (estimate) exhaust flow • Availability of calibration standards • Repeatability and accuracy are the goals!
Basic Elements of Vehicle Emissions Testing EXHAUST ANALYSIS Gases DYNO and DRIVING SIMULATION CONSTANT VOLUME SAMPLING
Dynamometer for Motorcycles/ATVs • Simulation of real-world operation including speed variations moving through an air mass and road resistance (chassis dynamometer) drivers aid proportional fan exhaust to CVS vehicle restraints dyno roller protective gear
Basic Elements of Engine Emissions Testing Dilution Tunnel and CONSTANT VOLUME SAMPLING SYSTEM EXHAUST ANALYSIS Gases and PM ENGINE DYNO
Engine Dynamometer Cell 5’s 50 HP engine dyno
Cell 5’s Other Engine Testing Dynamometers 5 HP 30 HP
Constant Volume Sampler Mixing “T” Total Volume (measured) = Dilution Air (measure) + Exhaust (calculated) = Constant Volume
CVS Constant Volume Sampler (cont.) Bag Sampling Unit Bags
Gas and PM Sampling Systems HC, CH4, CO, CO2, NOx and PM
There are some limitations for Cell 5 Inertia range from 175 lbs to 2,700 lbs Wheel-base up to 58’’ (60” roller length)
Coordination is very important, 2 minutes from exhaust test to evap test from key off!
TRU biodiesel evaluation for multimedia assessment and as a control strategy (SSD) • SOA CMU phase III for off-road engines (RD) • Estimation of in-use emissions and deterioration factors for SOREs (MSOD) • Conducted confirmatory testing for MC/ATVs (MSOD) • Conducted confirmatory testing for SOREs (MSOD) • Conducted confirmatory testing for aftermarket parts (MSOD) • Conducted IUC testing (MSOD) Recent Accomplishments
Confirmatory testing for MC/ATVs • (MSOD) • Confirmatory testing for SOREs (MSOD) • Confirmatory testing for aftermarket • parts (MSOD) • Confirmatory testing for OBD II (MSCD) • Surveillance for LDVs (PTSD) Current Programs
PEMS evaluation for MCs (MSCD) • MCs tampering (MSCD) • In use DF evaluation for TRUs (SSD) • Surveillance for MCs (PTSD) • IUC testing for SULEVs (MSOD) Future Programs
Tom Santos Travis Wong Ha Le not shown Pablo Cicero Tom DeSimone Martin Cvjetkovic John Massetti Tin Truong John Nguyen This is possible thanks to the team: