Creators Hurberg Chew Ming Chong M07105 Ryan You Jun Chao M07105 Kwok Jun Kiat M07105
Contents Page • Introduction • Astronomy • The Earth is not the centre of the universe • Church persecution
Introduction • Galileo Galilei was a great Italian mathematician, physicist and astronomer. He has laid foundations for modern experimental science through his persistent investigation of natural laws. He has also created astronomical telescopes which has greatly enlarged humanity’s vision and conception of the universe. He too helped to solve physical laws through his mathematical formulas.
Astronomy • In 1609, he created the world’s first ever complete telescope after hearing of a simple microscope being made in Holland by a lens grinder. • Galileo discovered that the moon, shining with reflected light, had an uneven, mountainous surface and that the Milky Way was made up of numerous separate stars. • He discovered the four largest satellites of Jupiter (Moons Io, Europa, and Callisto) on 7 January 1610, and the moons of Jupiter were the first satellites of a planet other than Earth to be discovered. • Ganymede was discovered four nights later.
Astronomy • He studied the oval shape of Saturn, which intrigued him, but his telescope prevented him from seeing the rings of Saturn. • The phases of Venus and spots of the Sun were his other great accomplishment to astronomy. • His investigations proved Copernicus’s theory of the solar system true, but he did not openly declare a doctrine so opposed to accepted beliefs until 1613, when he issued a work on sunspots, which was again, needless to say, arrested by the church. • He was one of the first few people to observe sunspots. • A sunspot from the time of Charlemagne was reinterpreted and solved the mystery of the people which had thought that it attributed to a transit of Mercury. • The existence of sunspots too posed a problem with the unchanging perfection of the heavens as assumed in the older philosophy.
Earth is not the centre of the universe • Galileo declared that not the earth, but the sun, is the center of the universe. • For many years, astronomers were never able to predict the movements of celestial bodies with accuracy and the reason for this inability is because the calculations were made with the understanding that the Earth was the center of the universe. • Galileo says that with his new theory (the sun is the center), the celestial movements can be calculated accurately and specifically. • Galileo said that we will never be able to understand our universe, or even our own Earth, until we change this incorrect perspective.
Church persecution • In 1611 he visited Rome to display the telescope to the papal court. • In 1616 the system of Copernicus was denounced as dangerous to faith, and Galileo, summoned to Rome, was warned not to uphold it or teach it. • But in 1632 he published a work which supported the Copernican system as opposed to the Ptolemaic, marked a turning point in scientific and philosophical thought. • He was tried (1633) by the Inquisition and brought to the point of making an abjuration of all beliefs and writings that held the sun to be the central body and the earth a moving body revolving with the other planets about it which he was again summoned to Rome.
Church persecution • After the Inquisition trial, Galileo was sentenced to an enforced residence in Siena. • He was later allowed to live in seclusion at Arcetri near Florence, and it is likely that Galileo's statement of defiance was made as he left Siena for Arcetri. • In spite of infirmities and, at the last, blindness, Galileo continued the pursuit of scientific truth until his death. • His last book, Dialogues Concerning Two New Sciences, which contains most of his contributions to physics, appeared in 1638. • In 1979 Pope John Paul II asked that the 1633 conviction be annulled.
Church persecution • However, since teaching the Copernican theory had been banned in 1616, it was technically possible that a new trial could find Galileo guilty; thus it was suggested that the 1616 prohibition be reversed, and this happened in 1992. • The pope concluded that while 17th-century theologians based their decision on the knowledge available to them at the time, they had wronged Galileo by not recognizing the difference between a question relating to scientific investigation and one falling into the realm of doctrine of the faith.
Acknowledgements We would like to acknowledge Wikipedia and Answers.com and all the other websites that allowed us to use their resources. Too, we would love acknowledge our wonderful creators of this presentation, no other than Hurberg Chew Ming Chong(M07105), Ryan You Jun Chao(M07105), Kwok Jun Kiat(M07105).
Credits Astronomy portion: Hurberg Chew(M07105) Earth is not the centre of the universe portion: Ryan You Jun Chao(M07105) Church persecution portion: Hurberg Chew(M07105) Compiler and powerpoint producer: Kwok Jun Kiat(M07105) Powerpoint editer: Hurberg Chew(M07105) Ryan You Jun Chao(M07105)
What the creators say... Hurberg: It was a fun experience…Ryan and I had to wait for Jun Kiat to do his powerpoint and he completed it only yesterday…procastinator…sry Jun Kiat but I dun mean to criticise u. Ryan: I love it!It is so fun…and Hurberg and Jun Kiat made me do the Earth is not the centre of the universe portion…it was so hard lor…kill them! Jun Kiat: Quite fun…but I prefer badminton instead…lol…and Ryan seems kind of lazy…he took a long time to find the Earth is not the centre of the universe portion…hehe