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## Chapter 4 Lists Fundamentals of Data Structures in C

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**Chapter 4 Lists Fundamentals of Data**Structures in C Instructors: C. Y. Tang and J. S. Roger Jang All the material are integrated from the textbook "Fundamentals of Data Structures in C" and some supplement from the slides of Prof. Hsin-Hsi Chen (NTU).**4.1 Pointers**• Consider the following alphabetized list of three letter English words ending in at: (bat, cat, sat, vat) • We would like to add the word mat to this list. • If we store this list in an array, then we must move sat and vat one position to the right before we insert mat. • Similarly, if we want to remove the word cat from the list, we must move sat and vat one position to the left to maintain our sequential representation. • In general case, arbitrary insertion and deletion from arrays can be very time-consuming.**- Linked representation**• In a sequential representation the order of elements is the same as in the ordered list, while in a linked representation these two sequences need not be the same. • To access elements of the list in the correct order with each element, we store the address, or location, of the next element in that list. • Thus, associated with each list element is a node which contains both a data component and a pointer to the next item in the list. The pointers are often called links.**10**i pi - Pointers in C • & the address operator • * the dereferencing (or indirection) operator • Example: int i, *pi; pi = &i; • &i returns the address of i and assigns it as the value of pi. • To assign a value to i we can say: i = 10; • or *pi = 10;**4.1.1 Pointers can be dangerous**• Set all pointers to NULL when they are not actually pointing to an object. • Use explicit type cast when converting between pointer types. • Example: pointer int i, *pi; pi = &i; i=10 or *pi=10 pi= malloc(size of(int)); /* assign to pi a pointer to int */ pf=(float *) pi; /* casts an int pointer to a float pointer */ • Define explicit return types for functions. • Pointers may have the same size as type int. The function return type defaults to int which can later be interpreted as a pointer .**4.1.2 Using dynamically allocated storage**• We may not know how much space we will need, nor do we wish to allocate some vary large area that may never be required. • C provides a mechanism, called a heap, for allocating storage at run-time. • We can call a function, malloc, to request the amount of memory. • Later we can call another function, free, to return the area of memory to the system.**Program 4.1 : Allocation and deallocation of pointers**int i, *pi; float f, *pf; pi = (int *) malloc(sizeof(int)); pf = (float *) malloc (sizeof(float)); *pi =1024; *pf =3.14; printf(”an integer = %d, a float = %f\n”, *pi, *pf); free(pi); free(pf); request memory return memory**bat **cat sat vat NULL 4.2 Singly linked lists • Linked lists are drawn as an order sequence of nodes with links represented as arrows. • The name of the pointer to the first node in the list is the name of the list. • -The nodes do not resident in sequential locations. • -The locations of the nodes may change on different runs.**mat **• It is easier to make arbitrary insertions and deletions using a linked list rather than a sequential list. • To insert the word mat between cat can sat, we must: • Get a node that is currently unused; let its address be paddr. • Set the data field of this node to mat. • Set paddr’s link field to point to the address found in the link field of the node containing cat. • Set the link field of the node containing cat to point to paddr. bat cat sat vat NULL**cat **sat mat • To delete mat from the list. • Find the element that immediately precedes mat, which is cat, and set its link field to point to mat’s link field. bat vat NULL**4.3 Dynamically linked stacks and queues**• When several stacks and queues coexisted, there was no efficient way to represent them sequentially. • Direction of links for both stack and the queue facilitate easy insertion and deletion of nodes.**top**front element link element link NULL NULL (a) Linked Stack (b) Linked queue rear**- Represent n stacks**• Declarations #define MAX_STACKS 10 /* max number of stacks */ typedef struct { int key; /* other fields */ } element; typedef struct stack *stack_pointer; typedef struct stack { element item; stack_pointer link; }; stack_pointer top[MAX_STACKS]; • Initial condition: top[i] = NULL, 0 ≦ i < MAX_STACKS • Boundary conditions: top[i] = NULL iff the ith stack is empty and IS_FULL(temp) iff the memory is full**Program 4.6 : Push in a linked stack**• void add(stack_pointer *top, element item){ /* add an element to the top of the stack */ stack_pointer temp = (stack_pointer) malloc (sizeof (stack)); if (IS_FULL(temp)) { fprintf(stderr, “ The memory is full\n”); exit(1); } temp->item = item; temp->link = *top; *top= temp; }**Program 4.7 : Pop from a linked stack**• element delete(stack_pointer *top) {/* delete an element from the stack */ stack_pointer temp = *top; element item; if (IS_EMPTY(temp)) { fprintf(stderr, “The stack is empty\n”); exit(1); } item = temp->item; *top = temp->link; free(temp); return item;}**-Represent n queues**• Declarations #define MAX_QUEUES 10 /* maximum number of queues */ typedef struct queue *queue_pointer; typedef struct queue { element item; queue_pointer link; }; queue_pointer front[MAX_QUEUE], rear[MAX_QUEUES]; • Initial conditions: front[i] = NULL, 0 ≦ i < MAX_QUEUES • Boundary conditions: front[i] = NULL iff the ith queue is empty and IS_FULL(temp) iff the memory is full**Program 4.8 : Add to the rear of a linked queue**• void addq(queue_pointer *front, queue_pointer *rear, element item){ /* add an element to the rear of the queue */ queue_pointer temp = (queue_pointer) malloc(sizeof (queue)); if (IS_FULL(temp)) { fprintf(stderr, “ The memory is full\n”); exit(1); } temp->item = item; temp->link = NULL; • if (*front) (*rear) -> link = temp; • else *front = temp; • *rear = temp; }**Program 4.9 : Delete from the front of a linked queue**• element deleteq(queue_pointer *front) {/* delete an element from the queue */ queue_pointer temp = *front; element item; if (IS_EMPTY(*front)) { fprintf(stderr, “The queue is empty\n”); exit(1); } item = temp->item; *front = temp->link; free(temp); return item;}**4.4 Polynomials**• 4.4.1- Representing Polynomials As Singly Linked Lists • We want to represent the polynomial:**Where the ai are nonzero coefficients and the eiare**nonnegative integer exponents such that em-1＞ em-2＞ … ＞e1＞ e0≧ 0. • We represent each term as a node containing coefficient and exponent fields, as well as a pointer to the next term.**coef expon link**• Declarations typedef struct poly_node *poly_pointer; typedef struct poly_node { int coef; int expon; poly_pointer link; }; poly_pointer a, b, c;**-Polynomial representation**a null 1 0 3 14 2 8 b null 8 14 -3 10 10 6**4.4.2 Adding polynomials**• To add two polynomials, we examine their terms starting at the nodes pointed to by a and b. • If the exponents of the two terms are equal, we add the two coefficients and create a new term for the result. • If the exponent of the current term in a is less than the exponent of the current term in b, then we create a duplicate term of b, attach this term to the result, called d, and advance the pointer to the next term in b. • Take a similar action on a if a->expon > b->expon.**(a) a->expon == b->expon**2 8 1 0 3 14 a -3 10 10 6 8 14 b 11 14 d a->expon == b->expon**(b) a->expon < b->expon**2 8 1 0 3 14 a -3 10 10 6 8 14 b -3 10 11 14 d a->expon < b->expon**(c) a->expon > b->expon**2 8 1 0 3 14 a -3 10 10 6 8 14 b -3 10 11 14 2 8 a->expon > b->expon**Program 4.10 : Add two polynomials**• poly_pointer padd(poly_pointer a, poly_pointer b) { poly_pointer front, rear, temp; int sum; rear =(poly_pointer)malloc(sizeof(poly_node)); if (IS_FULL(rear)) { fprintf(stderr, “The memory is full\n”); exit(1); } front = rear; while (a && b) { switch (COMPARE(a->expon, b->expon)) {**case -1: /* a->expon < b->expon */**attach(b->coef, b->expon, &rear); b= b->link; break; case 0: /* a->expon == b->expon */ sum = a->coef + b->coef; if (sum) attach(sum,a->expon,&rear); a = a->link; b = b->link; break; case 1: /* a->expon > b->expon */ attach(a->coef, a->expon, &rear); a = a->link; } }**for (; a; a = a->link) attach(a->coef, a->expon, &rear);**for (; b; b=b->link)attach(b->coef, b->expon, &rear); rear->link = NULL; temp = front; front = front->link; free(temp); return front; } Delete extra initial node.**- Analysis**• (1) coefficient additions • 0 additions min(m, n) • where m (n) denotes the number of terms in A (B). • (2) exponent comparisons • extreme case • em-1 > fm-1 > em-2 > fm-2 > … > e0 > f0 • m+n-1 comparisons • (3) creation of new nodes • extreme case • m + n new nodes • summary O(m+n)**4.4.3 Erasing polynomials**• Program 4.12 : Erasing a polynomial void erase(poly_pointer *ptr) { /* erase the polynomial pointed to by ptr */ poly_pointer temp; while (*ptr) { temp = *ptr; *ptr = (*ptr)->link; free(temp); } }**ptr**3 14 2 8 1 0 4.4.4 Representing Polynomials As Circularly linked lists • If the link field of the last node points to the first node in the list, all the nodes of a polynomial can be freed more efficiently. ptr =3X 14+2X 8+1**Chain: A singly linked list in which the last node has a**null link. • Nodes that are no longer in use are freed so that we can reuse these nodes later. • Maintaining a list (as a chain) of nodes that have been “freed”.**Program 1.13 : get_node function**• poly_pointer get_node(void) { poly_pointer node; if (avail) { node = avail; avail = avail->link: } else { node = (poly_pointer)malloc(sizeof(poly_node)); if (IS_FULL(node)) { printf(stderr, “The memory is full\n”); exit(1); } } return node; }**Program 4.14 : ret_node function**• void ret_node(poly_pointer ptr) { ptr->link = avail; avail = ptr; }**Program 4.15 : Erasing a circular list**void erase(poly_pointer *ptr) { /* erase the circular list ptr */ poly_pointer temp; if (*ptr) { temp = (*ptr)->link; (*ptr)->link = avail; avail = temp; *ptr = NULL; } }**** NULL avail ptr temp avail**To avoid the special case of zero polynomial, each**polynomial contains one additional head node. • The expon and coef fields of this node are irrelevant.**(a) Zero polynomial**-1 a Zero polynomial (b) a -1 2 8 1 0 3 14**Program 4.16 : Adding circularly represented polynomials**• poly_pointer cpadd(poly_pointer a, poly_pointer b) { poly_pointer starta, d, lastd; int sum, done = FALSE; starta = a; a = a->link; b = b->link; d = get_node(); d->expon = -1; lastd = d; do { switch (COMPARE(a->expon, b->expon)) { case -1: attach(b->coef, b->expon, &lastd); b = b->link; break; Set expon field of head node to -1.**case 0: if (starta == a) done = TRUE;**else { sum = a->coef + b->coef; if (sum) attach(sum,a->expon,&lastd); a = a->link; b = b->link; } break; case 1: attach(a->coef,a->expon,&lastd); a = a->link; } } while (!done); lastd->link = d; return d; } Link last node to first**4.5 Additional list operations**typedef struct list_node *list_pointer; typedef struct list_node { char data; list_pointer link; };**Use two extra pointers: middle and trail.**• Program 4.17: Inverting a singly linked list list_pointer invert(list_pointer lead) { /* invert the chain pointed to by lead */ list_pointer middle, trail; middle = NULL; while (lead) { trail = middle; middle = lead; lead = lead->link; middle->link = trail } return middle; }**a**x1 x1 x2 x2 x3 x3 a 4.5.2 Operations for circularly linked lists • Need to change the link field of the last node when insert a new node at the front of the list. • It is more convenient if the name of the circular list points to the last node.**Program 4.18 : Concatenating singly linked lists**• list_pointer concatenate(list_pointer ptr1, list_pointer ptr2) { list_pointer temp; if (IS_EMPTY(ptr1)) return ptr2; else { if (!IS_EMPTY(ptr2)) { for (temp=ptr1;temp->link;temp=temp->link); temp->link = ptr2; } return ptr1; } } O(m) where m is # of elements in the first list**X2**X1 void insert_front (list_pointer *ptr, list_pointer node) { if (IS_EMPTY(*ptr)) { *ptr= node; node->link = node; } else { node->link = (*ptr)->link; (1) (*ptr)->link = node; (2) } } X3 ptr (2) (1)**4.6 Equivalence relations**• A relation over a set, S, is said to be an equivalence relation over S iff it is symmertric, reflexive, and transitive over S. • reflexive, x=x • symmetric, if x=y, then y=x • transitive, if x=y and y=z, then x=z**0=4, 3=1, 6=10, 8=9, 7=4, 6=8, 3=5, 2=11, 11=0**• three equivalent classes{0,2,4,7,11}; {1,3,5}; {6,8,9,10}**A Rough Algorithm to find Equivalence Classes**• Program 4.21 : First pass at equvalence algorithm • void equivalenec() { initialize; while (there are more pairs) { read the next pair <i,j>; process this pair; } initialize the output; do { output a new equivalence class; } while (not done); }**Program 4.22 : A more detailed version of the equivalence**algorithm #include <stdio.h> #include <alloc.h> #define MAX_SIZE 24 #define IS_FULL(ptr) (!(ptr)) #define FALSE 0 #define TRUE 1

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