Download
about computer n.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
ABOUT COMPUTER PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
ABOUT COMPUTER

ABOUT COMPUTER

134 Views Download Presentation
Download Presentation

ABOUT COMPUTER

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. ABOUT COMPUTER Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  2. COMPUTER It is an Electronic Device which • Accepts data supplied by the user. • Inputs, Stores and Executes Instructions. • Performs Mathematical and Logical Operations. • Outputs Results according to the user Requirements. Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  3. DATA • Is a collection of Facts, Figures, Statistics which can be processed to produce meaningful INFORMATION. • For example : • A list of items • Letters and documents • Presentations etc. Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  4. PROCESS • Includes • CALCULATION • Addition, Substraction, Multiplication, Division. • COMPARISON • Equal to, Greater than, Lesser than, Positive, Zero, Negative. • DECISION MAKING • Branching to a different path depending on a condition. • LOGIC • The sequence or flow of step to be followed to get the desired result. Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  5. HISTORY OF COMPUTER Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  6. HISTORY • In 1647, MECHANICAL CALCULATOR was invented and another in 1694. • The PUNCHED CARD was invented in 1801. • The CENSUS MACHINE was invented in 1887. • Between 1820 and 1870, the ANALYTICAL ENGINE was developed. • After this began the era of the ‘GENERATION OF COMPUTERS.’ Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  7. MECHANICAL CALCULATOR • Invented by a French boy, BLAISE PASCAL In 1647. • Also known as ADDING MACHINES. • Machine worked using TOOTHED WHEELS and could ADD and SUBSTRACT only. Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  8. PUNCHED CARDS • Invented by a French weaver, JOSEPH MARIE JACQUARD in 1801 to control his Mechanical Looms. • A woven pattern on cloth is often produced by lowering needles of various hues as each row of cloth is woven. • With hundreds of threads involved, the process could get extremely complicated. • These Punched Cards controlled the movement of the threads by the PRESENCE and ABSENCE of Holes. Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  9. ANALYTICAL ENGINE • Created by CHARLES BABBAGE in 1820. • Machine had 50,000 moving parts worked by mechanical gears. • Meant for both Arithmetic Calculations and to Store Data. • He also created DIFFERENTIAL ENGINE in 1822. Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  10. FIRST PROGRAMMER • A brilliant Mathematician, Lady AUGUSTA ADA LOVELACE assisted CHARLES BABBAGE in his creation. • She improved upon his ideas and invented new approaches to program design. • The Programming Language ADA is named in her honour. • She used a special number system called the BINARY NUMBER system. • Due to the above description, she is rightly known as the FIRST COMPUTER PROGRAMMER. Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  11. AUTOMATIC CALCULATOR (ASCC) • Known as Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator. • Built by a Harvard Professor, HOWARD AITKEN in 1937 with the help of his Students and Engineers. • It was known as MARK I. • Was 50 feet long, had 500 miles of wires and 1000s of relays. • Used till 1959. Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  12. THE FIRST GENERATION • From 1946-1955 • Used VACUUM TUBES to Store DATA and Programming Instructions. • Data represented in 1(ON) and 0(OFF). • Vacuum tubes consumed large amount of electricity and produced large amounts of heat. • This led to the Second Generation of Computers. Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  13. ENIAC • In 1946, ECKERT & MAUCHLY built the first ELECTRO-MECHANICAL computer called ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Calculator). • It required the physical setting of thousands of switches and had less storage space. • It got heated up very fast and thus had to be shut down very often to cool it. • This computer was 100 feet long, weighed 80 Tonnes, had 70,000 Resistors, over 18,000 Vacuum Tubes and consumed electricity of 1,50,000 Watts. • Each time a program was changed, the writing had to be completely redone. • In October 1955, ENIAC was completely turned off. • It was developed on Experimental Basis. Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  14. EDSAC • Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator • Invented in 1949. • First to operate on the stored Program Concept. • Started operating in1951. • It was developed on Experimental Basis. Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  15. EDVAC • Electronic Discrete Variable Automation Computer. • Used Punched Cards for DATA ENTRY and was able to Store Programs. Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  16. UNIVAC • UNIVersal Automatic Computer. • Used about 10,000 Vacuum Tubes. • Performed SELF-CHECKING. • It could work even for 24 hours a day and used MAGNETIC TAPES as INPUT MEDIA. Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  17. LEO • Lyons Electronic Office. • Became operational in 1951. • First computer used for Commercial Purpose. • Started running full DATA PROCESSING services in 1954. Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  18. THE SECOND GENERATION • From 1956-1965 • Used Solid State TRANSISTORS (SEMICONDUCTORS) instead of VACUUM TUBES. • System speed increased than the First Generation Systems. • Example = ICT 1301 and IBM 1401. Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  19. THE THIRD GENERATION • From 1966-1975 • Used INTEGRATED CIRCUITS on CHIPS (Thin Wafers of SILICON) of TRANSISTORS (may be 100 transistors per chip). • Could handle more than one operation simultaneously. • Example = ICL 1900, IBM 360 & SYSTEM 4. Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  20. THE FOURTH GENERATION • From 1976-1985 • More circuits on a single chip were used. • This increased the amount of data that could be processed and stored in the memory chip. • Large Scale Integration (LSI) technology and Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) technology were used. Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  21. THE FIFTH GENERATION • From 1986 and continuing. • The entire processor of the computer can be put on a single chip. Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  22. TYPES OF COMPUTERS Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  23. A LAPTOP • Is a small, slim attache case weighing around 2 to 4 kilograms. • Offers same power as a desktop machine. • Uses reduced keyboard and mouse. • Disadvantage is bulky, difficult to operate a mouse without desk. • E.g. Toshiba 5200C and Compaq’s SLT/286. Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  24. A NOTEBOOK • Size is approximately 21 * 29.7 centimetres and weighs around 3 to 4 kilograms. • Same power as desktop machine. • E.g. Compaq’s Contura 3/20, Acer’s AnyWhere and from Zenith Computers Limited. Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  25. A PALMTOP • Smallest in size (that of a pocket calculator). • Applications limited and built-in. • E.g. HP’s HP95LX comes configured with Lotus 123 spreadsheet. Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  26. PC’s or Personal Computer • Is bulky, needs more space and not movable. • Large applications can be stored in it. Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  27. SUPER COMPUTERS • Designed for Complex Scientific Application Processing Needs. • Is a MULTIUSER and EXPENSIVE. • Storage Capacity is between 64 MB to 4 GB. • Word Length is from 64 to 128 BITS. • Eg. CRAY, CRAY-2, NEX SX-2, ROBOT, PARAM 10000. Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  28. A MAINFRAME COMPUTER • Also MULTIUSER • Used in CENTRALISED Centres. • Provides large storage capacity and faster CPU Speed. • Several MATH and LOGIC Processors are used. • Example - Dec 1090, Cyber 170, IBM 4300 Series, IBM360/370, UNIVAC 1100/60. Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  29. A MINI COMPUTER • Multi-user System. • Allows 50 users at a time. • Storage capacity is from 2 to 16 MB. • Offers advantage of MAINFRAME at a lower cost. • First was PDP-8 launched in 1965. • Example - PPDP-8, PDP-II, VAX-7500, HCL-DAYSIS Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  30. A MICRO COMPUTER • Called PC as it is a SINGLE USER system. • Popular due to low rate. • Single chip contains PROCESSOR, REGISTERS and CONTROL UNIT. • Speed is only 100 Kilo Instructions Per Second (KIPS). • Maximum word length is 8, 16, 32 Bits. • Example - UPTRON-S-800, INTEL Series 8080 (PC), 80286 (PC-XT), 80386/80486 (PC-AT), PENTIUM (I/II/III- Upto 850 MHz), PENTIUM MMX. Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  31. COMPONENTS Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  32. HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE • HARDWARE includes the computer equipment that is • MECHANICAL • ELECTRICAL • ELECTRONIC PARTS of the system. • SOFTWARE is the program that instructs a computer how to process the Data and generate the required Information. Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  33. TYPES AND USES • ANALOG Computers : used for measuring PHYSICAL QUANTITIES such as Temperature, Pressure etc. • DIGITAL Computers : Calculates Figures and Manages Text. • HYBRID Computers : is the combination of ANALOG and DIGITAL computers. Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  34. ADVANTAGES • Fast Processing Speed. • Reduces Use of Paper. • Lifetime Storage of Data. • Efficiency does not Decrease with Age. • Very Accurate. • Performs Complicated Tasks in a very Short Time. Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  35. DISADVANTAGES • Cannot Think. • Cannot try Various Alternatives. • Cannot Draw a Conclusion. • Does not Learn from Experience. Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  36. STORAGE OF DATA • All digital computers store Numbers, Letters, and other Characters in CODED FORM. • The code used to represent characters is the BINARY CODE. • Every character is represented by a string of ‘0s’ and ‘1s’ - the only digits found in the BINARY numbering system. • Binary code is made of binary digits called BITS. • Most computers have words that consist of 8 or 16 BITS. • In larger computers the number of BITS could be 16, 32, 36 or 40. Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  37. DATA STORAGE (MISC.) • ‘0’ or ‘1’ is called a BIT. • 4 bits make a NIBBLE. • Sequence of 8 bits is called a BYTE. • 8 bytes make a OCTET. • 1024 bytes make a KILOBYTE (KB). • 1024 KB make a MEGABYTE (MB). • 1024 MB make a GIGABYTE (GB). • 1024 GB make a TERABYTE (TB). Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  38. BINARY SYSTEM • Has a base of 2. • Symbols used are 0 and 1. • As we move to the left, the value of the digit will be two times greater than its predecessor. • Can be converted to octal, decimal and hexadecimal number systems. Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  39. ASCII SYSTEM • American Standard Code for Information Interchange. • Uses 7 bits per character. • Provides 128 different arrangements including upper case, special symbols like *, %, +, hyphen(-), 10 decimal digits (0 - 9) and non-printable control characters like carriage return key. • Used to represent data internally in PCs. • Besides codes for characters, codes are also defined for End Of File, End Of Page etc. • These codes are called non-printable control characters. Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  40. PERIPHERALS • Devices used with the computer system other than the computer itself. Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  41. A MOTHERBOARD • Is the BRAIN of the system and controls all the functions of the computer. • Every hardware is connected to it for working. • It has the Central Processing Unit (CPU) fixed on it, which controls the working. • Serial and Parallel ports for Mouse and Printer connection; Hard Disk, Floppy Drive, CD-ROM Drive; Power, Reset, LED Switches; Keyboard, Joystick etc. Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  42. THE CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT • Is the HEART of the system. • Controls the working of the computer. Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  43. CPU PROCESSOR TYPE & SPEED IN MHz • 286 = 10 MHz • 386 = 33, 44 MHz • 486 = DX2-66, DX4-100, DX4-S100, SX-33, SX2-40 MHz • 586 = 66, 100 MHz • PENTIUM = 100, 120, 133, 166, 200, 233 MHz Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  44. TYPE AND SPEED (CONT.) • CYRIX = 233, 300 MHz • CELERON = 233, 266, 300, 333, 350, 400, 433, 466 MHz • P-II = 233, 266, 300, 333, 350 MHz • P-III = 450, 500, 533, 550, 667, 700, 733, 766, 800, 850, 933 MHz • P-IV = 2GHz, 2.4GHz and more.. Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  45. INPUT DEVICES • Keyboard • Mouse • Scanner • Barcode Reader • MICR (Magnetic Ink Character Reader) • Microphone Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  46. KEYBOARD • 101 Keys (PC-AT /ENHANCED) • 104 Keys (WINDOWS) • More than 104 Keys (INTERNET and MULTIMEDIA) • Resembles a TYPEWRITER • Has three categories • ALPHANUMERIC KEYS • Contains ALPHABETS(A - Z, a - z) and FIGURES(0 - 9), OTHERS(space, dot, comma, !, @, #, $, %, ^, &, *, (, ), -, +, /, <, >, [, ], ‘, “, ~, `, {, }, |, \ ) Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  47. KEYBOARD (CONT.) • Special keys : Perform Specific Tasks • BACKSPACE, DELETE (DEL), INSERT (INS), SHIFT, CAPS LOCK, SCROLL LOCK, NUM LOCK, CONTROL (CRTL), ALTER (ALT), ESCAPE (ESC), RETURN (ENTER). • FUNCTION KEYS : for SHORTHAND • F1 TO F12 (F1 FUNCTION KEY IS USED AS A HELP KEY IN MOST OF THE SOFTWARES). Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  48. MOUSE • Invented by a Scientist DUGLES C. ENGELWART in 1977 at STANFORD Research Laboratory. • Previously known as POINTING DEVICE. • 2 types are Mechanical and Optical. • One, Two and Three Buttons. • Movement is measured in HUNDREDTHS of an INCH. • Function of each button is determined by the program that uses the mouse. • A three-button mouse is quite suitable for Multimedia and Internet. Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  49. MOUSE (CONT.) • MECHANICAL • the ball that projects through the bottom surface rotates as the mouse is moved along a flat surface. • the direction of rotation is detected and relayed to the computer by the switches inside the mouse. • E.g. Microsoft, IBM and Logitech • OPTICAL • uses a light beam instead of a rotating ball to detect movement across a specially patterned mouse pad. • E.g. MSC Corp. mouse Press SPACE BAR to continue...

  50. SCANNER • Used to reproduce photographs on the computer screen • FLATBED • Can scan and store images from books without removing the page. • ROLLER-FEED • Image is passed over a roller where it is captured. Press SPACE BAR to continue...