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Taking Advances in Prevention Science to Scale to Prevent Drug Misuse and Crime Community-Wide. J. David Hawkins Social Development Research Group School of Social Work University of Washington. Research Guiding Practice.

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taking advances in prevention science to scale to prevent drug misuse and crime community wide
Taking Advances in Prevention Science to Scale to Prevent Drug Misuse and Crime Community-Wide

J. David Hawkins

Social Development Research Group

School of Social Work

University of Washington

research guiding practice
Research Guiding Practice

Malleable risk and protective factors identified through longitudinal studies should be targeted by preventive interventions.

(Coie et al., 1994; Woolf, 2008; O’Connell, Boat & Warner, 2009)

advances in prevention
Advances in Prevention

Over the past 25 years, controlled trials have identified both ineffective and effective prevention policies and programs.

effective programs and policies have been identified in a wide range of areas
Prenatal & Infancy Programs

Early Childhood Education

Parent Training

After-school Recreation

Mentoring with Contingent Reinforcement

Youth Employment with Education

Organizational Change in Schools

Classroom Organization, Management, and Instructional Strategies

School Behavior Management Strategies

Classroom Curricula for Social Competence Promotion

Community & School Policies

Community Mobilization

Effective Programs and Policies Have Been Identified in a Wide Range of Areas

(Hawkins & Catalano, 2004)

slide5
Preventive interventions that address shared risk factors for different adolescent health risking behaviors have produced reductions in multiple outcomes, including drug use and crime.

(Hawkins et al, 1999; Botvin et al., 2002 ; Flay et al, 2004; Haggerty et al., 2007; Schweinhart et al, 1992; 2005).

slide6
Lists of Rigorously Tested and Effective Youth Violence and Drug Abuse Prevention Programs and Policies
  • Blueprints for Violence Prevention

www.colorado.edu/cspv/blueprints/

  • Communities That Care Prevention Strategies Guide

http://preventionplatform.samhsa.gov

slide7
But…

Prevention approaches that do not work or have not been evaluated have been more widely used than those shown to be effective.

(Gottfredson & Gottfredson, 2002, Hallfors et al 2001, Ringwalt et al., 2002.)

the challenge
The Challenge
  • How can we take tested and effective prevention programs to scale…

while recognizing that communities are different from one another and that people want to have control over what programs they use?

why community level
Why “community” level?
  • Preventive services are implemented locally.
  • Youths in different communities are exposed to different levels of risk and protection.
slide11

Madison Middle School Risk Profile 8th Grade 2002

Peer-Individual

Estimated National Value

slide12

Nova High School Risk Profile 10th Grade 2002

Peer-Individual

Peer-Individual

Estimated National Value

slide13

A Goal for Community Prevention

To identify and address those risk factors that are most prevalent and those protective factors that are most suppressed with tested and effective policies and programs.

communities that care a tested and effective operating system for community wide prevention
Communities That Care:A Tested and Effective Operating System for Community Wide Prevention
  • CTC is a proven method for mobilizing communities to prevent underage drinking, tobacco use and delinquent behavior.
  • CTC has been tested in a randomized controlled experimental trial involving 12 pairs of matched communities (24 communities) across 7 states from Maine to Washington.
  • CTC’s effects have been independently replicated in a statewide dissemination trial in Pennsylvania.
population level effects of ctc
Population Level Effects of CTC
  • Compared with control communities, CTC significantly reduced the incidence of tobacco use, alcohol use and delinquent behavior community wide by end of 8th grade.
  • Compared with control communities, CTC significantly reduced the prevalence of smokeless tobacco use, current drinking, binge drinking and delinquent behavior community wide in 8th grade.
slide16
Communities That Care is owned by the federal government and is available at:

http://preventionplatform.samhsa.gov/

CSAP Contact:

Patricia Getty, Ph.D.

Acting Director, Division of Systems Development

Center for Substance Abuse Prevention

patricia.getty@samhsa.hhs.gov

the c ommunities that care operating system
The Communities That Care Operating System

Get Started

Creating

Communities

That Care

Implement and

Evaluate

Get Organized

Develop a Profile

Create a Plan

the c ommunities that care operating system18
The Communities That Care Operating System

Get Started

Creating

Communities

That Care

Implement and

Evaluate

Get Organized

Develop a Profile

Create a Plan

  • Community readiness assessment.
  • Identification of key individuals, stakeholders, and organizations.
the c ommunities that care operating system19
The Communities That Care Operating System

Get Started

Creating

Communities

That Care

Implement and

Evaluate

Get Organized

Develop a Profile

Create a Plan

  • Training key leaders and board in CTC
  • Building the community coalition.
organizations represented by ctc board members in 12 ctc communities
Business 25

Citizen Advocacy 13 Organization

Community Coalition 11

Community Member 17

Health Agency 15

Human Service Agency 43

Juvenile Justice System 9

Law Enforcement 23

Local Philanthropic 3 Organization

Media 4

Parent 13

Religious Group 21

School 104

Substance Abuse 8 Prevention Organization

State, Town, City or 20 Municipal Government

Youth Member 15

Youth Recreation Program 24

Other 8

Total: 376 Members

Organizations Represented byCTC Board Members in 12 CTC Communities
the c ommunities that care operating system21
The Communities That Care Operating System

Get Started

Creating

Communities

That Care

Implement and

Evaluate

Get Organized

Develop a Profile

Create a Plan

  • Collect risk/protective factor and outcome data.
  • Collect information on community resources
  • Construct a community profile from the data.
slide22

Peer-Individual

Estimated National Value

the c ommunities that care operating system23
The Communities That Care Operating System

Get Started

Creating

Communities

That Care

Implement and

Evaluate

Get Organized

Develop a Profile

Create a Plan

  • Define outcomes.
  • Prioritize factors to be targeted.
  • Select tested, effective interventions.
  • Create action plan.
  • Develop evaluation plan.
addressing risk with effective action

Factor Addressed

Program Strategy

Developmental Period

Family Management Problems

Prenatal/Infancy Programs

prenatal-2

Early Childhood Education

3-5

Parent Training

prenatal-14

Family Therapy

6-14

Addressing Risk with Effective Action
effective prevention for parents of young adolescents
Effective Prevention for Parents of Young Adolescents
  • Creating Lasting Connections
  • Family Matters
  • Guiding Good Choices
  • Parents Who Care
  • Parenting Wisely
  • Strengthening Families 10-14
the c ommunities that care operating system26
The Communities That Care Operating System

Get Started

Creating

Communities

That Care

Implement and

Evaluate

Get Organized

Develop a Profile

Create a Plan

  • Form task forces.
  • Identify and train implementers.
  • Sustain collaborative relationships.
  • Evaluate processes and outcomes.
  • Adjust programming.
ctc trainings
CTC Trainings
  • Key Leader Orientation
  • Community Board Training
  • Community Assessment Training
  • Community Resource Assessment Training
  • Community Planning Training
  • Community Program Implementation Training
slide28

Communities that CareProcess and Timeline

Measurable Outcomes

Process

Increase in priority protective factors

Decrease in priority risk factors

Increase in positive youth development

Reduction in problem behaviors

Assess risk,

protection and

resources

Implement and evaluate

tested prevention strategies

Vision for a healthy community

6-9 mos. 1 year 2-5 years 4-10 years

why does ctc work
Why Does CTC Work?
  • Complete set of manualized trainings.
  • Process for assessing community readiness.
  • Milestones and Benchmarks that guide communities through the CTC process.
  • Standardized assessment process for community needs assessment.
  • Menu of tested and effective preventive interventions.
  • Training and tools for monitoring implementation fidelity and quality and outcomes.
what does ctc achieve
What Does CTC Achieve?
  • Creates a stable infrastructure for prevention in the community.
  • Creates synergy across preventive interventions and efficient use of prevention resources.
  • Helps communities use epidemiological data to prioritize risk and protective factors for preventive action.
  • Increases use of tested and effective preventive interventions.
  • Extends the impact of prevention beyond individual programs and their direct recipients to the broader community – achieves population level outcomes.
ingredients of ctc success identified through research
Ingredients of CTC Success Identified through Research
  • Local CTC board functioning is key to CTC effectiveness, the fidelity of evidence-based programs implemented through CTC, and sustainability of prevention effort.
  • CTC board functioning is dependent on adequate training and ongoing technical assistance.
  • Regular evaluation and feedback to local sites assists the joint work of TA providers and CTC boards in maintaining high-quality site functioning and program fidelity.
communities that care cyds publications
Communities That CareCYDS Publications

Arthur, M.W., Briney, J.S., Hawkins, J.D., Abbott, R.D., Brooke-Weiss, B. &. Catalano, R.F. (2007). Measuring community risk and protection using the Communities That Care Youth Survey. Evaluation and Program Planning, 30, 197-211.

Brooke-Weiss, B., Haggerty, K. P., Fagan, A. A., Hawkins, J. D., & Cady, R. (2008). Creating community change to improve youth development: The Communities That Care (CTC) system. The Prevention Researcher 15(2), 21-24.

Brown, EC, Hawkins, JD, Arthur, MW, Briney, JS, & Abbott, RD (2007). Effects of Communities That Care on prevention services systems: Findings from the Community Youth Development Study at 1.5 years. Prevention Science. 8, 180-191.

Brown, EC, Hawkins, JD, Arthur, M W, Abbott, RD, & Van Horn, ML (2008). Multilevel analysis of a measure of community prevention collaboration. American Journal of Community Psychology, 41, 115-126.

Fagan, A. A., Hanson, K., Hawkins, J. D., & Arthur, M. W. (2008). Implementing effective community-based prevention programs in the Community Youth Development Study. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 6, 256-278.

Fagan, A. A., Hanson, K., Hawkins, J. D., & Arthur, M. W. (2008). Bridging science to practice: Achieving prevention program implementation fidelity in the Community Youth Development Study. American Journal of Community Psychology, 41, 235-249.

communities that care cyds publications33
Communities That Care CYDS Publications

Fagan, A. A., Hawkins, J. D., & Catalano, R. F. (2008). Using community epidemiologic data to improve social settings: The Communities That Care prevention system. In M. Shinn & H. Yoshikawa (Eds.), Toward positive youth development: Transforming schools and community programs. New York: Oxford University Press.

Fagan, AA, Brooke-Weiss, B, Cady, R, Hawkins, JD (in press). If at first you don't succeed…keep trying: Strategies to enhance coalition/school partnerships to implement school-based prevention programming. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology.

Fagan, A.A., Van Horn, M.L., Hawkins, J.D., & Arthur, M.W. (2007). Using community and family risk and protective factors for community-based prevention planning. Journal of Community Psychology, 35(4), 535-555.

Hawkins, JD (2006). Science, social work, prevention: Finding the intersections.  Social Work Research, 30(3), 137-152.

Hawkins, JD, Oesterle, S, Brown, EC, Arthur, MW, Abbott, RD, Fagan, AA, Catalano, RF (in press). Results of a type 2 translational research trial to prevent adolescent drug use and delinquency: A test of Communities That Care. Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine.

Hawkins, J. D., Catalano, R. F., Arthur, M. W., Egan, E., Brown, E. C., Abbott, R. D., & Murray, D. M. (2008). Testing Communities That Care: The rationale, design and behavioral baseline equivalence of the Community Youth Development Study. Prevention Science, 9(3), 178-190.

communities that care cyds publications34
Communities That Care CYDS Publications

Hawkins, J.D., Brown, E.C., Oesterle, S., Arthur, M.W., Abbott, R.D., & Catalano, R.F. (2008). Early effects of Communities That Care on targeted risks and initiation of delinquent behavior and substance use. Journal of Adolescent Health.

Jonkman, H. B., Haggerty, K. P., Steketee, M., Fagan, A. A., Hanson, K., & Hawkins, J. D. (2008). Communities That Care, core elements and context: Research of implementation in two countries. Social Development Issues, 30, 42-57.

Murray, D.M., Van Horn, M.L., Hawkins, J.D., & Arthur, M.W. (2006). Analysis strategies for a community trial to reduce adolescent ATOD use: A comparison of random coefficient and ANOVA/ANCOVA models. Contemporary Clinical Trials. 27, 188-206.

Quinby, R.K., Fagan, A.A., Hanson, K., Brooke-Weiss, B., Arthur, M.W., & Hawkins, J.D. (2008). Installing the Communities That Care prevention system: Implementation progress and fidelity in a randomized controlled trial. Journal of Community Psychology, 36, 313-332.

Van Horn, M.L., Fagan, A.A., Jaki, T., Brown, E.C., Hawkins, J.D., Arthur, M.W., Abbott, R.D., & Catalano, R.F. (2008). The use of mixture models to evaluate differential intervention effects in group randomized trials. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 43, 289-326.

taking advances in prevention science to scale to prevent drug misuse and crime community wide35
Taking Advances in Prevention Science to Scale to Prevent Drug Misuse and Crime Community Wide

J. David Hawkins

Social Development Research Group

School of Social Work

University of Washington